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    1. #1
      Pragmatic's Avatar
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      The first European: 35,000 years ago


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      The first European: Created from fragments of fossil, the face of our forbears 35,000 years ago





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      bhc32219
      May 04, 2009
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      By David Derbyshire
      Last updated at 2:47 PM on 05th May 2009

      Dressed in a suit, this person would not look out of place in a busy street in a modern city.
      The clay sculpture, however, portrays the face of the earliest known modern European - a man or woman who hunted deer and gathered fruit and herbs in ancient forests more than 35,000 years ago.
      It was created by Richard Neave, one of Britain's leading forensic scientists, using fossilised fragments of skull and jawbone found in a cave seven years ago.



      The first modern European: Forensic artist Richard Neave reconstructed the face based on skull fragments from 35,000 years ago

      His recreation offers a tantalising glimpse into life before the dawn of civilisation. It also shows the close links between the first European settlers and their immediate African ancestors.
      To sculpt the head, Mr Neave called on his years of experience recreating the appearance of murder victims as well as using careful measurements of bone.
      It was made for the BBC2 series The Incredible Human Journey. This will follow the evolution of humans from the cradle of Africa to the waves of migrations that saw Homo sapiens colonise the globe.



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      Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1177123/The-European-Created-fragments-fossil-face-forbears-35-000-years-ago.html#ixzz0LObihfUS


      The head has taken pride of place on the desk of Alice Roberts, an anthropologist at Bristol University, who presents the programme.
      'It's really quite bizarre,' she told Radio Times. 'I'm a scientist and objective but I look at that face and think "Gosh, I'm looking at the face of somebody from 40,000 years ago" and there's something weirdly moving about that.
      'Richard creates skulls of much more recent humans and he's used to looking at differences between populations.
      'He said the skull doesn't look European or Asian or African. It looks like a mixture of all of them.
      'That's probably what you'd expect of someone among the earliest populations to come to Europe.'

      Anthropologist Alice Roberts with the model: 'I look at that face and think "I'm actually looking at the face of somebody from 40,000 years ago"', she says

      The head is based on remains of one of the earliest known anatomically modern Europeans.
      The lower jawbone was discovered by potholers in the Carpathian mountains in Romania in 2002. The rest of the fragments were found the following year.
      The bones were carbon-dated to between 34,000 and 36,000 years ago when Europe was occupied by two species of human.
      They were the Neanderthals, who had arrived from Africa tens of thousands of years earlier, and the more recent modern humans, also known as Cro-Magnons.
      Although the skull is similar to a modern human head, it has a larger cranium, is more robust and has larger molars. Although it is impossible to work out the skin colour of the prehistoric hunter, it is likely to have been darker than modern white Europeans.
      Fossil experts are also unsure if the skull was male or female.
      Many scientists believe that modern humans evolved in Africa 200,000 to 100,000 years ago. Our ancestors left Africa around 60,000 years ago and migrated around the world, replacing other branches of the family tree which had left the continent earlier.


      The earliest modern Europeans were far from primitive. Living in huts and caves, they used stone tools and spears made from antlers, painted on the walls of their caves and made jewellery from shells.
      [ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_1Gqn2Buf28"]YouTube - So what did the first Europeans look like?????[/ame]







      [ame="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fMjaeIMeqnU&feature=related"]YouTube - Aryans and the Swastika[/ame]





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    2. #2
      Pragmatic's Avatar
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      First Genetic Evidence Of Long-lived African Presence Within Britain


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      First Genetic Evidence Of Long-lived African Presence Within Britain

      First Genetic Evidence Of Long-lived African Presence Within Britain

      First Genetic Evidence Of Long-lived African Presence Within Britain
      SLC24a5 gene: How the European evolved into the "whiteness"

      afro britian king of ireland was black
      http://www.bing.com/search?q=afro+br...m=QBRE&qs=n&sk=

      ScienceDaily (Jan. 24, 2007) — New research has identified the first genetic evidence of Africans having lived amongst "indigenous" British people for centuries. Their descendants, living across the UK today, were unaware of their black ancestry.

      The University of Leicester study, funded by the Wellcome Trust and published today in the journal European Journal of Human Genetics, found that one third of men with a rare Yorkshire surname carry a rare Y chromosome type previously found only amongst people of West African origin.

      The researchers, led by Professor Mark Jobling, of the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester, first spotted the rare Y chromosome type, known as hgA1, in one individual, Mr. X. This happened whilst PhD student Ms. Turi King was sampling a larger group in a study to explore the association between surnames and the Y chromosome, both inherited from father to son. Mr. X, a white Caucasian living in Leicester, was unaware of having any African ancestors.

      "As you can imagine, we were pretty amazed to find this result in someone unaware of having any African roots," explains Professor Jobling, a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellow. "The Y chromosome is passed down from father to son, so this suggested that Mr. X must have had African ancestry somewhere down the line. Our study suggests that this must have happened some time ago."

      Although most of Britain's one million people who define themselves as "Black or Black British" owe their origins to immigration from the Caribbean and Africa from the mid-twentieth century onwards, in reality, there has been a long history of contact with Africa. Africans were first recorded in the north 1800 years ago, as Roman soldiers defending Hadrian's Wall.

      To investigate the origins of hgA1 in Britain, the team recruited and studied a further eighteen males with the same surname as Mr. X. All but one were from the UK, with paternal parents and grandparents also born in Britain. Six, including one male in the US whose ancestors had migrated from England in 1894, were found to have the hgA1 chromosome.

      Further genealogical research to identify a common ancestor for all seven X-surnamed males suggests that the hgA1 Y chromosome must have entered their lineage over 250 years ago.

      However, it is unclear whether the male ancestor was a first generation African immigrant or a European man carrying an African Y chromosome introduced into Britain some time earlier, or even whether the hgA1 Y chromosome goes back as far as the Roman occupation.

      "This study shows that what it means to be British is complicated and always has been," says Professor Jobling. "Human migration history is clearly very complex, particularly for an island nation such as ours, and this study further debunks the idea that there are simple and distinct populations or 'races'."

      In addition, Professor Jobling believes that the research may have implications for DNA profiling in criminal investigations.

      "Forensic scientists use DNA analysis to predict a person's ethnic origins, for example from hair or blood samples found at a crime scene. Whilst they are very likely to predict the correct ethnicity by using wider analysis of DNA other than the Y chromosome, finding this remarkable African chromosome would certainly have them scratching their heads for a while."


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