Survival For The Afrikan Community
by, 01-31-2008 at 11:59 PM (4743 Views)
Here are a few facts in understanding the nature of bullet wounds. With this knowledge and further research you may be able to save a life perhaps your own in absence of a doctor or medical attention.
Bullets from small caliber weapons pass through the tissue causing little harm, and leave what is called a ice wound. Ice wounds are usually clean unless the bullet hits a bone, vessel or nerve, often little treatment is necessary and recovery is rapid.
Rifle bullets of large calibers cause wounds of various types. The exit wound is often larger than the wound of entrance, leaving lacerations of the skin. Muscle tissue is usually greatly damaged. Nerve tissue and blood vessels are tough and elastic and will usually hold together. The bone is tough but brittle and so it frequently cracks due to impact.
Damage to the abdomen varies with the type of organ hit. If the bullet passes through a solid organ such as the liver, spleen or stomach full of food it has an explosive effect and tears large amounts of tissue. If the bullet perforates an empty stomach, often it will make the same type of small holes in the organs as it makes in the wound of entrance in the skin.
Shell or bomb fragment wounds are caused by sharp jiggered pieces of steel of almost any size. They are generally large, irregular lacerated wounds. They often have no wound of exit. A wound can have 4 effects which threaten life.
A) Hemorrhage Sudden loss of large amounts of blood can produce shock severe enough to require immediate treatment to save the life. Loss of one half the bodys blood volume is usually fatal.
B) Mechanical Defects Such as a chest wound or an obstruction of the airway, which causes death unless corrected quickly.
C) Infection Open wounds are contaminated by bacteria. The wounds may contain tetanus or other organisms which produce infections. Bacteria multiply within four to six hours. This is the best time for treatment to prevent infection.
D) Tissue Destruction may cause death by
1. Injury to organs or systems.
2. Poisons released from dead tissue.
Inflammation is the local reaction of the body to irritation or injury.
Causes of inflammation
1. Traumatic such as blows and mechanical irritation
2. Chemical Such as venom of snakes, acid, poison ivy, insect stings.
3. Heat or cold.
4. Pathogenic disease causing bacteria, such as staphylococcus.
5. X-rays and sun rays.
Types of Hemorrhage
1) Arterial - blood is bright red, escapes in spurts, escapes in spurts with each heart beat. This is the most dangerous type of bleeding. (blood is from the artery) Control of arterial bleeding elevate wound, apply direct pressure to stop bleeding. If bleeding continues apply tourniquet.
2) Venous _ Blood is from vein. There is a rapid flow. Blood is dark red and wells up into the wound steadily without spurting. Control of Venous Bleeding elevate the wound and apply direct pressure with a sterile dressing. Seldom needs a tourniquet.
3) Capillary _ This is a steady oozing of blood from the wound. It is dark red in color. Control of capillary bleeding, elevate the wound and apply direct pressure with a sterile dressing.
Symptoms of Hemorrhage
1) Skin is pale, cold and moist
2) Breathing is rapid, irregular and shallow
3) Pulse rate is rapid, feeble and irregular
4) Blood pressure is lowered.
Shock Shock is a condition in which there is not enough blood to fill the vascular system. As a result tissues do not get enough oxygen. There is extreme body weakness. Reduction of blood volume can result from:
2) Leaking capillaries causing loss of blood plasma.
3) Abnormal increase in the capacity of the vascular system.
Injury Is The Major Cause Of Shock
Types Of Shock
A) Psychogenic Shock results from sudden emotion. It may cause fainting in a depressed temporary state. Recovery is usually prompt.
B) Vasogenic Shock May be produced by the effects of such drugs as nitrates, and histamine. The capacity of vascular system enlarges.
C) Cardiogenic Shock Occurs when the heart, because of damage by injury or disease, is unable to pump adequate amounts of blood to all parts of the body.
D) Neurogenic Shock is a result of severe pain, or injuries to the nervous system. The blood pressure usually reduces.
E) Hemorrhagic Shock sudden loss of 12 to 25 percent of normal blood volume.
F) Wound Shock wound shock or traumatic shock is caused by wounding. The more severe the wound, the more severe the shock. Signs of severe shock.
1) Skin pale, damp and cold all over.
2) Hands and feet leave bluish discolorations.
3) Systolic pressure 90 or below,
4) Blood Pulse rapid, weak or may not be detectable.
5) Respiration rapid irregular, and shallow.
6) Eyes may have a vacant, dull expression, and the pupils are enlarged.
7) Responses are sluggish, sometimes restless, excitable or delirious.
Treatment Of Shock
1) Control bleeding
2) Replacements of fluids to restore an effective blood volume and to prevent dehydration such as blood transfusions.
PS in the not to distant future I will host a class on this topic study up...
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