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Bog body

The Tollund Man on display at the Silkeborg Museum, Denmark

Bog bodies, also known as bog people, are preserved human bodies found in sphagnum bogs in Northern Europe, Great Britain and Ireland. Unlike most ancient human remains, bog bodies have retained their skin and internal organs due to the unusual conditions of the surrounding area. These conditions include highly acidic water, cold temperature, and a lack of oxygen, combining to preserve but severely tan their skin.
Although their skin is preserved, their bones are generally not, as the acid in the peat dissolves the calcium phosphate of bone. Some of the bodies retain intricate details like tattoos and fingerprints. Fingerprint expert C.H. Vogelius Andersen was astonished to find that Grauballe Man's hand prints were clearer than his own. The stubble and facial features of Tollund Man are particularly well preserved.


Suebian knots were found to be worn by the bog bodies of Osterby and Dätgen, towns near Rendsburg-Eckernförde, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. In 2000, near Lębork, Pomerania, on the Polish Baltic Sea coast, a bronze kettle was found depicting males wearing the Suebian knot hairstyle


[edit] Early history

[edit] Classification in classical sources

In the classical sources, the ethnonym Suebi is used with two different meanings: the specific tribe of Caesar's campaign, "dwelling on the Main", and "broadly, to cover a large number of tribes in central Germany."[5] The broad view is expressed in Tacitus' Germania, a basic written source for the Suebic peoples that states:[6]
We must come now to speak of the Suebi, who do not, like the Chatti or Tencteri, constitute a single nation. They actually occupy more than half of Germany, and are divided into a number of distinct tribes under distinct names, though all generally are called Suebi.
For Tacitus, the Suebi comprise the Semnones, who are "the oldest and noblest of the Suebi";[7] the Langobardi;[8] the seven tribes of Jutland and Holstein: Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, Suarini, Nuitones;[8] the Hermunduri on the Elbe;[9] three tribes along the Danube: Naristi, Marcomanni, Quadi;[10] the Marsigni and Buri.[11] Then there is a mountain range, and beyond that, in the drainage system of the Vistula, Tacitus places five tribes of the Lugii including the Harii, Helvecones, Manimi, Helsii and Naharvali;[11] the Gothones, Rugii, Lemovii along the Baltic Sea;[11] all the states of the Suiones, located in peninsular Scandinavia;[12] and finally the non-Germanic Aestii,[13] and the Sitones, beyond the Aestii along the Baltic yet "continuous with the Suiones".[13] Says Tacitus then: "Here Suebia ends."[14]
But few clues to the identity of the Suebi are given by Tacitus . They can be identified by their fashion of the hair style called the "Suebian knot", which "distinguishes the freeman from the slave";[15] in other words, was intended as a badge of social rank. The same passage points out that chiefs "use an even more elaborate style."

Early history

[edit] Legendary origins and name

Further information: Hundings
The fullest account of Lombard origins, history, and practices is the Historia gentis Langobardorum (History of the Lombards) of Paul the Deacon, written in the 8th century. Paul's chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum (Origin of the People of the Lombards).
The Origo tells the story of a small tribe called the Winnili[1] dwelling in southern Scandinavia[2] (Scadanan) (The Codex Gothanus writes that the Winnili first dwelt near a river called Vindilicus on the extreme boundary of Gaul.)[3] The Winnili were split into three groups and one part left the native land to seek foreign fields. The reason for the exodus was probably overpopulation.[4] The departing people were led by the brothers Ybor and Aio and their mother Gambara[5] and arrived in the lands of Scoringa, perhaps the Baltic coast[6] or the Bardengau on the banks of the Elbe.[7] Scoringa was ruled by the Wandals/Vandals and their chieftains, the brothers Ambri and Assi, who granted the Winnili a choice between tribute or war.

The 575–585 period in the Kingdom of Lombards.

Liudolf, Duke of Saxony

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Liudolf (died 12 March 864 or 866) was a Saxon count; later authors called him duke of the Eastern Saxons. He was also named as count of Eastphalia. Liudolf had possessions in eastern Saxony, and was involved in wars against Normans and Slavs. The Liudolfing House, also known as the Ottonian House, is named after him; he is its oldest known member.
Liudolf married Oda, daughter of a Frankish prince named Billung and his wife Aeda. Oda died on 17 May 913, supposedly at the age of 107. By marrying a Frankish nobleman's daughter, Liudolf followed suggestions set forth by Charlemagne about ensuring the integrity of the Frankish Kingdom through marriage.
In 845/846, Liudolf and his wife traveled to Rome in order to ask Pope Sergius II for permission to found a house of secular canonesses, duly established in Brunshausen around 852, and moved in 881 to form Gandersheim Abbey. Liudolf's daughter Hathumod became its first abbess.
Liudolf is buried in Brunshausen; his sons Brun and Otto apparently inherited his property.
Liudolf, Duke of Saxony
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rulers of Saxony
Succeeded by

Ottonian dynasty

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Depiction of the Ottonian family tree in a 12th century manuscript.

The Ottonian dynasty was a dynasty of Germanic Kings (919-1024), named after its first emperor but also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin. The family itself is also sometimes known as the Liudolfings, after its earliest known member Liudolf and one of its primary leading-names. The Ottonian rulers are also regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, as successors of the Carolingian dynasty and Charlemagne, who is commonly viewed as the original founder of a new (Frankish) Roman Empire.

The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. The Goth Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths and regent of the Visigoths, was allied by marriage with the Vandals as well as with the Burgundians and the Franks under Clovis I.
The Vandals are perhaps best known for their sack of Rome in 455. Although they were not notably more destructive than others, the high regard which later European cultures held for ancient Rome led to the association of the name of the tribe with persons who cause senseless destruction, particularly in diminution of aesthetic appeal or destruction of objects that were completed with great effort.

Peace be upon you