Moors in Court got the Judge SHOOK part2
Moors in Court got the Judge SHOOK part1
Moors in Court pt 1
Marrakush Society 1
Marrakush Society 2
The 65th Square: The Black Genesis of Chess - Moors of Spain
The 65th Square
The Black Genesis of Chess - Moors of Spain
by Daaim Shabazz, Ph.D.
Chess is a game that we all love and enjoy for its build-up of tension and it infinite possibilities. Black chess players have recently begun to make headway into the upper echelons of the international chess arena. However, there was a historical precedent for Blacks in a mighty people who served as the genesis of modern-day chess. Who were these mighty people? They were the Moors of Africa who led a militaristic campaign against Spain in 711 AD and brought with them a game called Shatranj. Shatranj was derived from Chaturanga, a board game originating in India in the 6th century which featured only four types of pieces: elephants, chariots, calvary, and infantry. The Moors also brought another fame to Spain called el-Quirkat, a direct ancestor to checkers.
The Moors were a proud civilization known for spectacular advances in science which included tracing "the curvilinear path rays of light through air." This is the forerunner of eyeglasses. The Moors also used the astrolab and compass for navigation and their methods of surgical medicine were at advanced states. They excelled in herbology and employed food preservation techniques enabling the storage of wheat for as long as 100 years! In addition, the sophistication of the cities in Spain was bolstered by the presence of stunning beauty of Moorish architecture. Despite the Moors advances in science and scholarship, they also enjoyed activities such as horse-riding, marksmanship, polo, backgammon, and . . . chess. It is befitting that chess was a favorite Moorish pastime as many enjoyed the challenge of warfare strategy and tactics, and perhaps many were strong players. Although Hannibal, the Moor of Carthage (247-183 BC) would not have played Shatranj, his military ingenuity would indicate that he participated in some aspect of war simulation.
The Moorish empire went through many tests and dynasties before political and social fractures contributed to the downfall of an empire lasting almost 800 years. The Moors signed the act of capitulation (equivalent to resigning) and surrendered their last stronghold, Granada, in 1492. What follows is interesting. Queen Isabella (Isabel da Católica) of Castile was looked at as a key figure for her support in the "Reconquista" to drive the Moors from Spanish soil. In addition to the Queen, King Ferdinand of Aragon backed Cardinal Ximenes de Cisneros who would order the destruction of Moorish libraries and mosques and subsequently, their expulsion and slaughter. After this period, Shatranj was modified!! New rules were added such as castling, two-square pawn advance, and en passant capture. The Queen, just a bit-player in Shatranj, became the most powerful piece in tribute to Queen Isabella. It was known as "dama" in Spanish, or "dame" in French. The other pieces were changed to reflect the royalty of the Spanish empire and achieved popularity around the world. The greatest figure in early chess history was François-André Danican Philidor, a renowned player and composer.
What happened to the Moors? After being forced out of Spain, most were driven back into West Africa, but many would later be recaptured and sold into America and the Caribbean as slaves. Some of these slaves (multilingual and erudite scholars) came on ships of Christopher Columbus who was commissioned by Queen Isabella to discover the "New World" round 1492. About 510 years later, some of the descendants of these Black Africans are becoming reacquainted with a game that their ancestors brought to Europe and would become the forerunner to modern-day chess. One day Black masters of the world will rise to the top of the game that made their ancestors "Kings" of their day.
Taking oath to defend Constitution is fraudulent! Your the enemy, not a citizen!
If you haven't been naturalized as a U.S citizen , and swear to defend the constitution when you have no rights or freedoms you are committing a fraud!
When you claim to practice the Bill of Rights and "your" amendment to:
- to bear arms
- freedom of speech
- the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble,
- and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances
- and you haven't been naturalized as US citizenyou are committing a "fraud".
1870 Naturalization Act
..."And any person who shall falsely represent himself to be a citizen of the United states, without having been "duly admitted to citizenship", for any fraudulent purpose whatever, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, in due course of law, be sentenced to pay a fine of not exceeding one thousand dollars, or be imprisoned not exceeding two years, either or both, in the discretion of the court taking cognizance of the same".
- Have you been "Naturalized"?
- Are European rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness more important than your rights?
- If so, would this make you there slave? Or there indentured servant?
The legal encyclopedia American Jurisprudence says the following in regard to constitutionality:The general rule is that an unconstitutional statute, though having the form and the name of law, is in reality no law, but is wholly void and ineffective for any purpose since unconstitutionality dates from the time of its enactment and not merely from the date of the decision so branding it; an unconstitutional law, in legal contemplation, is as inoperative as if it had never been passed ... An unconstitutional law is void. (16 Am. Jur. 2d, Sec. 178)Sovereign vs. U.S Citizenship
The fact is, Native Africans and Americans are defending the constitution against themselves for Europeans; the act is fraudulent based on who The United States considers there "enemy's".
In law, an enemy alien is a citizen of a country which is in a state of conflict with the land in which he or she is located. Usually, but not always, the countries are in a state of declared war.
NOTE: Native born American peoples were the first Blacks in the Slave trade. These Americans were used as "non-white auxilliaries" to capture Africans in raids in the interior of Africa were whites were barred from (The Arab Strategy).
- African people were deported to America along with Americans as Prisoner's of War
- were all laws were suspended
- without a jury of there peers
- convicted to a natural life of slavery,
- without due process of law
- like Guantanmo, only African people were bred and manufactured.
How can you defend the Constitution from "the enemy" when in fact Europeans started wars with Native Americans and Native Africans to justify "legal slavery", making you the "enemy".Nativism (politics) favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. It may also include the re-establishment or perpetuation of such individuals or their culture ie, the Doctrine of Reception was policy implemented by the Kingdom of Great Britain, that says,
and the the 1870 Naturalization Act (above)
"Plantations or colonies, in distant countries, are either such where the lands are claimed by right of occupancy only, by finding them desert and uncultivated, and "peopling them" from the "mother-country"; or where, when already cultivated, they have been either gained by conquest, or ceded to us by treaties
Nativism typically means opposition to immigration or efforts to lower the political or legal status of specific ethnic or cultural groups because the groups are considered hostile or alien to the natural culture, and it is assumed that they cannot be assimilated.
Hostile, alien, ...natural culture; assimilation???
here's the oath:
I, (NAME), do "solemnly swear" (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against "all enemies", foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. So help me God.
Peace be upon you
United States Constitution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Constitutionality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Enemy alien - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lane-Poole, Stanley. The Story of the Moors in Spain. Baltimore, Black Classic Press, 1990 (first published in 1886).
Rogers, J.A. World's Great Men of Color, Volume I. New York: Collier Books, 1972 (first published in 1946).
Van Sertima, Ivan. Golden Age of the Moor. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1992. Recommended!
Wall, Bill. "Firsts in Chess." Firsts in chess - by Bill Wall (Feb 7, 2005).
Westerveld, Govert. "The Influence of the Spanish Queen Isabel la Católica on the New Powerful Dama in the Origin of the Draughts and Modern Chess Game."The 65th Square (The Black Genesis of Chess - Moors of Spain)