Vinyl Record, vinyl DISC
A gramophone record (also vinyl record, vinyl, phonograph record, or simply record) is an analog sound storage medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove usually starting near the periphery and ending near the center of the disc. (Some commercial-use only records ran the groove from the center to the edge of the record.) Gramophone records were the primary medium used for commercial music reproduction for most of the 20th century. They replaced the phonograph cylinder as the most popular recording medium in the 1900s, and although they were supplanted in popularity in the late 1980s by digital media, leaving mainstream by 1990, they continue to be manufactured and sold as of 2008. Gramophone records remain the medium of choice for many audiophiles, and specialist areas such as electronic dance music and hip hop.
During the 1920s, engineers, particularly at Western Electric, developed technology for capturing sound with microphones, amplifying it with vacuum tubes, and using the amplified signal to a drive an electromagnetic recording head. A wide frequency range could now be recorded, and there was no longer any limit on playback volume.
Although the technology used vacuum tubes and today would be described as "electronic," at the time it was referred to as "electrical." A 1926 Wanamaker's ad in The New York Times offers records "by the latest Victor process of electrical recording." It was recognized as a breakthrough; in 1930, a Times music critic stated
...the time has come for serious musical criticism to take account of performances of great music reproduced by means of the records. To claim that the records of succeeded in exact and complete reproduction of all details of symphonic or operatic performances... would be extravagant. [But] the article of today is so far in advance of the old machines has hardly to admit classification under the same name. Electrical recording and reproduction have combined to retain vitality and color in recitals by proxy.
Electrical recording preceded electrical home reproduction (much as digital recording preceded digital home reproduction), because of the initial high cost of the electronics. In 1925 the Victor company introduced the groundbreaking Victor Orthophonic Victrola, an acoustical record player that was specifically designed to play electrically recorded discs, as part of a line that also included electrically-reproducing "Electrolas." The acoustical Orthophonics ranged in price from $95 (about $1140 in year-2007 dollars) to $300, depending on cabinetry; by comparison, the cheapest Electrola cost $650 (about $7500 in year-2007 dollars).
The Orthophonic had an interior folded exponential horn, a sophisticated design informed by impedance-matching and transmission-line theory, and designed to provide a relatively flat frequency response. Its first public demonstration was front-page news in the New York Times.
Gradually, electrical reproduction entered the home. The clockwork motor was replaced by an electric motor; the 'needle' and diaphragm (the 'sound box') was replaced with a 'pickup' using either a steel or sapphire stylus, and a transducer to convert the groove vibrations into an electrical signal. The exponential horn became an amplifier and loudspeaker.
he floppy disk drive (FDD) was invented at IBM by Alan Shugart in 1967. The first floppy drives used an 8-inch disk (later called a "diskette" as it got smaller), which evolved into the 5.25-inch disk that was used on the first IBM Personal Computer in August 1981. The 5.25-inch disk held 360 kilobytes compared to the 1.44 megabyte capacity of today's 3.5-inch diskette.
They became commercially available in 1971. Disks in this form factor were produced and improved upon by IBM and other companies such as Memorex, Shugart Associates, and Burroughs Corporation.
It was called a floppy because the first varieties were housed in bendable jackets. Woefully undersized for today's use, it is no longer standard equipment on computers. However, until the early 1990s, the floppy was the primary method for distributing software and was widely used for backup. By the mid-1990s, it had mostly given way to the CD-ROM.
A floppy disk is a lot like a cassette tape:
* Both use a thin plastic base material coated with iron oxide. This oxide is a ferromagnetic material, meaning that if you expose it to a magnetic field it is permanently magnetized by the field.
* Both can record information instantly.
The first compact disc was produced exactly 25 years ago in a factory in Germany after years of development by Philips and Sony. We take a look at the humble disc's history and how it shaped the music landscape.
# The compact disc project was launched following Philips' failure with its video disc technology in 1978.
# The video disc was one of the first commercial products to take advantage of laser technology that could read information from a disc without any physical contact.
# Research into the video disc began as far back as 1969, and itself was inspired by Italian Antonio Rubbiani, who had demonstrated a rudimentary video disc system 12 years earlier.
# In 1970 Philips began work on what was called the ALP (audio long play) - an audio disc system to rival vinyl records, but using laser technology.
BBC NEWS | Technology | How the CD was developed
IBM and Disks
# 1956, the first hard drive the IBM 305 RAMAC is the first magnetic hard disk for data storage, and the RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control) technology soon becomes the industry standard. It required 50 24-inch disks to store five megabytes (million bytes, abbreviated MB) of data and cost roughly $35,000 a year to lease - or $7,000 per megabyte per year. For years, hard disk drives were confined to mainframe and minicomputer installations. Vast "disk farms" of giant 14- and 8-inch drives costing tens of thousands of dollars each whirred away in the air conditioned isolation of corporate data centers.
# 1962 - JUN. Teletype ships its Model 33 keyboard and punched-tape terminal, used for input and output on many early microcomputers.
# 1967 - IBM builds the first floppy disk.
# 1971 - IBM introduces the "memory disk", or "floppy disk", an 8-inch floppy plastic disk coated with iron oxide.
# 1973 - IBM introduces the IBM 3340 hard disk unit, known as the Winchester, IBM's internal development code name. The recording head rides on a layer of air 18 millionths of an inch thick.
So apparently IBM invented the Disk, right?? SO who actually gave IBM this knowledge??
IBM and the Holocaust is the stunning story of IBM's strategic alliance with Nazi Germany -- beginning in 1933 in the first weeks that Hitler came to power and continuing well into World War II. As the Third Reich embarked upon its plan of conquest and genocide, IBM and its subsidiaries helped create enabling technologies, step-by-step, from the identification and cataloging programs of the 1930s to the selections of the 1940s.
Only after Jews were identified -- a massive and complex task that Hitler wanted done immediately -- could they be targeted for efficient asset confiscation, ghettoization, deportation, enslaved labor, and, ultimately, annihilation. It was a cross-tabulation and organizational challenge so monumental, it called for a computer. Of course, in the 1930s no computer existed.
IBM and the Holocaust home
THe Vinyl Record(DISK) , 1890, Hard Drive DISK 1957, Floppy DISK, 1967, and CD-ROM DISK 1980s and are obvious COPIES of This Dropa DISK Technology, which was said to have been discovered in 1938. So did IBM and Hitler and company get the DISK Technology, then figure out how to use it 60 years before the DROPA DISKS' discovery was unveiled?
IBM and the Germans, and Europeans for that matter are Obivously NOT the creators of this technology considering they couldnt decipher the Rosetta stone, an African had to do that (See Dr. Ben Jochanon video on the Africans).
Also the Disk is said to be at leat 12,000 years old, and Caucasoid history dooes not begin for another 11,000 years. Africans, or KMT already built the Sphinx at this date.
Who gave them the Technology? HOW Long ago did they get this technology that is an OBVIOUS REPLICA Of the Dropa Disk?
Damn theres so much secret shit goin on...