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    1. #1
      Jahness's Avatar
      Jahness is offline OniOni Warrior

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      Arrow What is an IP address?


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      What is an IP address?


      Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number, called an IP Address. A typical IP address looks like this:

      * 216.27.61.137

      To make it easier for us humans to remember, IP addresses are normally expressed in decimal format as a "dotted decimal number" like the one above. But computers communicate in binary form. Look at the same IP address in binary:

      * 11011000.00011011.00111101.10001001

      The four numbers in an IP address are called octets, because they each have eight positions when viewed in binary form. If you add all the positions together, you get 32, which is why IP addresses are considered 32-bit numbers. Since each of the eight positions can have two different states (1 or 0) the total number of possible combinations per octet is 28 or 256. So each octet can contain any value between 0 and 255. Combine the four octets and you get 232 or a possible 4,294,967,296 unique values!

      Out of the almost 4.3 billion possible combinations, certain values are restricted from use as typical IP addresses. For example, the IP address 0.0.0.0 is reserved for the default network and the address 255.255.255.255 is used for broadcasts.

      The octets serve a purpose other than simply separating the numbers. They are used to create classes of IP addresses that can be assigned to a particular business, government or other entity based on size and need. The octets are split into two sections: Net and Host. The Net section always contains the first octet. It is used to identify the network that a computer belongs to. Host (sometimes referred to as Node) identifies the actual computer on the network. The Host section always contains the last octet. There are five IP classes plus certain special addresses:

      * Default Network - The IP address of 0.0.0.0 is used for the default network.

      * Class A - This class is for very large networks, such as a major international company might have. IP addresses with a first octet from 1 to 126 are part of this class. The other three octets are used to identify each host. This means that there are 126 Class A networks each with 16,777,214 (224 -2) possible hosts for a total of 2,147,483,648 (231) unique IP addresses. Class A networks account for half of the total available IP addresses. In Class A networks, the high order bit value (the very first binary number) in the first octet is always 0.

      Net Host or Node
      115. 24.53.107


      * Loopback - The IP address 127.0.0.1 is used as the loopback address. This means that it is used by the host computer to send a message back to itself. It is commonly used for troubleshooting and network testing.

      * Class B - Class B is used for medium-sized networks. A good example is a large college campus. IP addresses with a first octet from 128 to 191 are part of this class. Class B addresses also include the second octet as part of the Net identifier. The other two octets are used to identify each host. This means that there are 16,384 (214) Class B networks each with 65,534 (216 -2) possible hosts for a total of 1,073,741,824 (230) unique IP addresses. Class B networks make up a quarter of the total available IP addresses. Class B networks have a first bit value of 1 and a second bit value of 0 in the first octet.

      Net Host or Node
      145.24. 53.107


      * Class C - Class C addresses are commonly used for small to mid-size businesses. IP addresses with a first octet from 192 to 223 are part of this class. Class C addresses also include the second and third octets as part of the Net identifier. The last octet is used to identify each host. This means that there are 2,097,152 (221) Class C networks each with 254 (28 -2) possible hosts for a total of 536,870,912 (229) unique IP addresses. Class C networks make up an eighth of the total available IP addresses. Class C networks have a first bit value of 1, second bit value of 1 and a third bit value of 0 in the first octet.

      Net Host or Node
      195.24.53. 107


      * Class D - Used for multicasts, Class D is slightly different from the first three classes. It has a first bit value of 1, second bit value of 1, third bit value of 1 and fourth bit value of 0. The other 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast message is intended for. Class D accounts for 1/16th (268,435,456 or 228) of the available IP addresses.

      Net Host or Node
      224. 24.53.107


      * Class E - Class E is used for experimental purposes only. Like Class D, it is different from the first three classes. It has a first bit value of 1, second bit value of 1, third bit value of 1 and fourth bit value of 1. The other 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast message is intended for. Class E accounts for 1/16th (268,435,456 or 228) of the available IP addresses.

      Net Host or Node
      240. 24.53.107


      * Broadcast - Messages that are intended for all computers on a network are sent as broadcasts. These messages always use the IP address 255.255.255.255.
      Posted In The Spirit of Learning & Sharing
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      ***************************************
      The Quest for knowledge stops at the grave.
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      If you fail to prepare,
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    2. #2
      Im The Truth's Avatar
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      IP addresses are normally assigned by your Internet provider.
      "If the enemy is not doing anything against you, you are not doing anything"
      -Ahmed Sékou Touré


      "speak truth, do justice, be kind and do not do evil."
      -Baba Orunmila

      "Cowardice asks the question: is it safe? Expediency asks the question: is it political? Vanity asks the question: is it popular? But conscience asks the question: is it right? And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor political, nor popular - but one must take it simply because it is right."
      --Dr. Martin L. King


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      This is all Chinese to me.
      We are not citizens of amerikkka. We are victims of amerikkka.

    4. #4
      G.O.D.F.A.T.H.A.'s Avatar
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      You can get a firewall to block your IP address though. You can also change your IP address with some other networking tools.





    5. #5
      Jahness's Avatar
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      Quote Originally Posted by Revolutionary_Student
      This is all Chinese to me.
      The Internet is often referred to as a "TCP/IP" network. Every network uses a set of rules to govern how computers send and receive information. These rules are called "protocols." A set of protocols is sometimes referred to as a protocol "suite" or "stack" and all computers on a network have to use the same protocols if they want to talk to one another. "TCP/IP" is the name given to the protocol suite used by computers on the global Internet, and as such it is no surprise that most corporate and home networks are also using TCP/IP as well.

      There are many parts to a protocol suite. Some protocols governs the physical characteristics of the network hardware and wires. Some govern the way specific applications talk to one another. The name "TCP/IP" actually refers to two parts of a protocol suite which govern how packets of information get from one computer to another, and how they get to the correct application within a given computer.

      IP - Internetworking Protocol (From My House to Your House)
      When you send information out over the Internet, something magic happens - your transmission (usually) gets to the right computer out of the millions that make up the Internet. It is the job of the "network layer" protocols to see that this happens. The network layer protocol used on the Internet is called the Internetworking Protocol, or simply IP.

      The IP protocol works a lot like sending mail through the postal service. It makes use of addresses to tell where to send the "mail" which in this case is composed of information packets. We break down information into packets because we want lots of computers to be able to talk to one another at the same time, and so we make each computer break the message it has to send into small parts. Those parts are all intermingled together on the wire. Sometimes it is more appropriate to call the parts "frames" but it is most common to call them "packets" and that's what we'll use in this discussion.

      IP Addresses
      Just like the postal service sending a piece of mail, each packet has to have the address of the computer that is supposed to receive it (the destination address). For reasons we'll get to shortly, every packet also has to have the address of the computer that sent it as well (called the source address), just like putting a return address on a piece of postal mail. Therefore, we can say that each machine that wishes to talk on the network has to have an address - called an IP address. As a general rule, every machine has to have a unique address.

      An IP address is made up of four 8-bit numbers. Each of these numbers is separated by a decimal point. Since an 8 bit number can represent the decimal values 0-255, each of the four parts of an IP address can only be in that range. A typical address might look like 209.176.20.69
      Posted In The Spirit of Learning & Sharing
      One Love & Respect Always

      ***************************************
      The Quest for knowledge stops at the grave.
      HIM Emperor Haile Selassie I.


      If you fail to prepare,
      you are preparing to fail!


      Mind what you want, because someone wants your mind.

      Working together, the ants ate the elephant.


    6. #6
      Im The Truth's Avatar
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      Your IP address is like your social security number (SSN) except for your computer when it's on the Internet. The major difference here is the government assigns you a SSN and your Internet provider (AOL, Comcast, Earthlink, AT&T, etc) assigns you an IP address. Just like with your SSN the numbers in your IP address mean something.

      Quote Originally Posted by Revolutionary_Student
      This is all Chinese to me.
      "If the enemy is not doing anything against you, you are not doing anything"
      -Ahmed Sékou Touré


      "speak truth, do justice, be kind and do not do evil."
      -Baba Orunmila

      "Cowardice asks the question: is it safe? Expediency asks the question: is it political? Vanity asks the question: is it popular? But conscience asks the question: is it right? And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor political, nor popular - but one must take it simply because it is right."
      --Dr. Martin L. King


      Get Involved!

    7. #7

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      Quote Originally Posted by Im The Truth
      Your IP address is like your social security number (SSN) except for your computer when it's on the Internet. The major difference here is the government assigns you a SSN and your Internet provider (AOL, Comcast, Earthlink, AT&T, etc) assigns you an IP address. Just like with your SSN the numbers in your IP address mean something.
      I pretty much figured that part out. What I don't understand is why I see like 20 different IP numbers when I look at my user IP numbers. I only use two computers: my home PC and my work PC.
      We are not citizens of amerikkka. We are victims of amerikkka.

    8. #8
      Im The Truth's Avatar
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      Ok, it's because unlike with the government who gives a person one SSN. Some companies, like AOL, give you a new IP address everytime you log on to the Internet.

      Quote Originally Posted by Revolutionary_Student
      I pretty much figured that part out. What I don't understand is why I see like 20 different IP numbers when I look at my user IP numbers. I only use two computers: my home PC and my work PC.
      "If the enemy is not doing anything against you, you are not doing anything"
      -Ahmed Sékou Touré


      "speak truth, do justice, be kind and do not do evil."
      -Baba Orunmila

      "Cowardice asks the question: is it safe? Expediency asks the question: is it political? Vanity asks the question: is it popular? But conscience asks the question: is it right? And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor political, nor popular - but one must take it simply because it is right."
      --Dr. Martin L. King


      Get Involved!

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