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    1. #1
      Tehuti-4's Avatar
      Tehuti-4 is offline Atef Warrior

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      Benjamin "Pap" Singleton


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      OUR HISTORY FAM! IF WE DON'T KNOW HOW WILL OUR CHILDREN? AND IF THEY DON'T WHO WILL REMEMBER??


      Benjamin "Pap" Singleton
      (1809-1892)

      A leader in the "Great Exodus" that brought thousands of African Americans west from the post-Reconstruction South, Benjamin Singleton became toward the end of his life a pioneer of black nationalism who launched one of the first back-to-Africa movements in the United States.

      Singleton was born in 1809 in Nashville, Tennessee, where he was several times sold as a slave but always managed to escape. Eventually, he fled to Canada, then settled in Detroit, Michigan, where he ran a boardinghouse that frequently sheltered runaway slaves.

      Returning to Tennessee after the Civil War, Singleton became convinced that it was his mission to help his people improve their lives. He began in the late 1860's by organizing an effort to buy up Tennessee farmland for blacks, but this plan failed when white landowners refused to sell at fair prices.

      Undaunted, Singleton set his sights on Kansas, where he and a partner named Columbus Johnson staked out a black settlement in Cherokee County (which failed) and a second settlement in Morris County. Singleton spread the word about his settlements through posters that circulated widely across the South, and he formed a company with Johnson that helped hundreds of black Tennesseans move to Kansas between 1877 and 1879.

      Those who answered Singleton's call to head west became known as "Exodusters," and Singleton himself was described as the "Father of the Exodus." But the massive migration of African Americans from the South that reached a peak in 1879 was not inspired by Singleton alone. The driving force was the withdrawl of federal troops from the South in 1877, which marked the official end of Reconstruction and the return of racial oppression through segregation laws and the terrorist activities of groups like the Ku Klux Klan. By 1879, which became known as the year of the "Great Exodus," some 50,000 blacks had fled to freedom in Kansas, Missouri, Indiana and Illinois, while thousands more had been turned back by whites patrolling the rivers and roads.

      In 1880, Singleton was called to testify at Congressional hearings on the alarming migration of blacks from the South. By 1881, however, Singleton had begun a new phase in his campaign to aid his people, organizing a party called the United Colored Links in a black section of Topeka, Kansas, called "Tennessee Town" because so many natives of that state lived there. Affiliated with the Greenbacks, a white workers' party that called for fundmental social change in the United States, Singleton's Links party was intended to help African Americans acquire their own factories and start their own industries. Unfortunately, Singleton soon discovered that there was not enough capital within the black community to achieve this goal.

      Shifting his sights again, in 1883 Singleton founded an organization called the Chief League, which encouraged blacks to emigrate to the island of Cyprus. Few responded to his call, so in 1885 he formed the Trans-Atlantic Society to help black people move back to their ancestral homeland in Africa. By 1887, this group, too, had proven unsuccessful. Suffering poor health, Singleton was forced at last to retire from his self-appointed mission, and in 1892 he died in St. Louis. But his vision of a society in which African Americans owned the land, directed the industries and held the power would live on, finding a charismatic champion in Marcus Garvey, whose Universal Negro Improvement Association of the early 1920's briefly realized many of Singleton's dreams.


      [nomedia]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IerEp2hXseE[/nomedia]

      The exodus was immortalized in this classic Poitier film.

      For more information: Nell Irvin Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas Following Reconstruction (University of Kansas Press, 1986).
      "Image and Reality on the Kansas Prairie: 'Pap' Singleton's Cherokee County Colony," Kansas History (Summer 1996).
      The most powerful weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed.

    2. #2
      Anayansi's Avatar
      Anayansi is offline Warrior

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      Wow, what a great story... keep them coming!

      Can you imagine how things would have been today if he would have suceeded in his black industry goals?
      My AV represents the Harpy Eagle, whichis the national bird of Panama. It is an endangered species that nests high in the forests of regions that go from Mexico to South America.

    3. #3
      Pragmatic's Avatar
      Pragmatic is offline Moderator

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      The Black Flight of 1877 a.k.a Hayes Compromise


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      Fresh...~ Thanks for the lesson brotha.

      The Black Flight of 1877 a.k.a Hayes Compromise

      At the time of the compromise was forged in 1876, Blacks were overwhelmingly affiliated with the Republican Party. Although a Republican, Hayes crossed party lines to win the vote, in the South.

      ..."In a Manifest show of Machiavellian political opportunism, he deemed it expedient to "sacrifice" the support of the Black constituency in his party.

      It was open season on Black folks.

      It was the height of lynching and the beggining of Jim Crowism.

      Many hate groups, such as the Klan, were formed at this time.

      ...to survive, many black were forced to (*flee ) migrate the South to Northern cities.


      Black people left because there were armed thugs, murderers, thieves, punks, rapists, bigots, and extremists terrorizing there "civilized neighborhoods" because they were voting...

      ...The white man has "legally conducted", an arrangement of living conditions, for the second class African citizen,...to name a but a few, we have bared witness to historical joblessness due to lawful discrimination. . . this pans out to lawful starvation, the introduction to crack cocaine, and heroine, second class christianship, and guns.

      The white man has lawfully created a living standard conducive to the 1700 truancy laws.

      Conducive... to slavery. . . if convicted of a crime therof, and now he leaves, the enviroment he has constructed, and then turns back and calls it uncivilized. . ..

      This arrangement is pychopathic, deranged, and diabolical.

      Do white folks flee or do they migrate? Why do White folks do either?

      Did Black folks "flee" or did the migrate? Where they scary to leave White folks alone in the horror's that where manifesting about them?

      Should African people stayed and stood up for there rights as Second class American Citizens?



      What would you have done? Was is worth dying over?
      • Between 1880 and 1951 the Tuskegee Institute recorded the lynchings of 3,437 African Americans "citizens"

      • Whites used lynchings, burnings, and slavry to dissuade blacks from voting and to enforce Jim Crow laws.

      • A study of the period of 1868 to 1871 estimates that the Ku Klux Klan was involved in more than 400 lynchings
      Peace be upon you

      The Black Flight of 1877 a.k.a Hayes Compromise


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