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      Afrika and the Diaspora
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      Duse Mohamed Ali: Egyptian Nationalist, Pan Afrikanist Journalist

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      H I S T O R Y N O T E S


      By AHATI N. N. TOURE



      For Duse Mohamed Ali (21 November 1866-26 February
      1945), traveling and forging relationships throughout
      the Afrikan world were central themes of his 78-year
      life's journey. Born in Alexandria, Egypt, to a
      Sudanese mother and an Egyptian father, Ali was
      destined never to stay long in the land of his birth.
      The actor, journalist, Pan Afrikanist, and writer
      related that at nine years old his father, Abdul Salem
      Ali, an [E]gyptian army officer who was later killed
      during an abortive nationalist uprising in 1881-1882,
      sent him to study in England. Ali would eventually
      lose his knowledge of Arabic and contact with his
      family. From then on he would spend the rest of his
      life living away from Egypt, traveling widely
      throughout the global Afrikan community, and settling
      variously in England, the United States, and Nigeria.

      His first career, which was to last for 24 years, was
      in the theater. In 1885, at age 19, the orphaned Ali
      became a stage actor, beginning in Wilson Barrett's
      theatrical company, and adopting the non-Arabic name
      Duse. He departed England the following year for
      touring and performances in the United States and
      Canada. While in the United States, Ali left the
      company and worked as a clerk for several years before
      returning to Britain in 1898 to resume acting for 11
      more years.

      By his early 40s, however, Ali had decided on a career
      change. In 1909 he began work as a journalist,
      publishing articles on Egyptian nationalism and
      Afrikan oppression in the New Age, an influential
      London-based socialist weekly literary journal. Two
      years later he published a short history of Egypt
      titled In the Land of the Pharaohs. Reputedly the
      first history of Egypt written by an Egyptian, the
      book received critical acclaim, catapulting Ali into
      international, and especially Pan Afrikan, prominence.

      In July 1912 he founded in London the African Times
      and Orient Review, a political, cultural, and
      commercial journal that advocated Pan Afrikan-Asian
      nationalism and that was a forum for Afrikan
      intellectuals and activists from around the world. The
      journal covered issues in the United States, the
      Caribbean, West Afrika, South Africa, and Egypt, as
      well as in Asia, including India, China, and Japan.
      Marcus Garvey, who was living in London at the time,
      briefly worked for Ali and contributed an article to
      the journal's October 1913 issue. It ceased
      [P]ublication in October 1918, succeeded by the
      African and Orient Review, which operated through most
      of 1920.

      In the year following the journal's demise, Ali
      traveled to the United States, never returning to
      Britain. There he briefly worked in Garvey's Universal
      Negro Improvement Association movement, contributing
      articles on Afrikan issues to the Negro World, and
      heading a department on Afrikan affairs.

      Ali had come to the United States to promote his
      vision of economic Pan Afrikanism, seeking to set up a
      commercial link between West Afrikans and US Afrikans.
      In the 1920s he repeatedly but unsuccessfully tried to
      secure US Afrikan financing to enable West Afrikan
      produce farmers to secure markets and exports to the
      United States, wresting control from major British
      firms, such as Lever Brothers. In the 1930s he failed
      to gain Euro-American capital for the same purpose.

      Ten years after he had come to the United States, Ali
      left permanently for West Afrika in 1931, settling in
      Lagos, Nigeria. There he re-established a career in
      journalism, becoming founder and editor of The Comet,
      which in 1933 became Nigeria's largest weekly. In 1934
      he serialized his novel, Ere Roosevelt Came, which,
      among other things, touched upon his experiences with
      the Afrikan struggle in the United States. From June
      1937 to March 1938 he also serialized his
      autobiography, Leaves >From An Active Life. He retired
      from the newspaper's managing directorship in 1943 and
      died in Lagos two years later at the age of 78.

      Further Reading

      "Biographical Supplement: Duse Mohamed Ali," in The
      Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement
      Association Papers, Volume I: 1826-August 1919, edited
      by Robert A. Hill and Carol A. Rudisell, Berkeley:
      University of California Press, 1983

      Duffield, Ian, "Duse Mohamed Ali: His Purpose and His
      Public" in The Commonwealth Writer Overseas: Themes of
      Exile and Expatriation, edited by Alastair Niven,
      Brussels: M. Didier, 1976

      Duffield, Ian, "Duse Mohamed Ali and the Development
      of Pan-Africanism 1866-1945," Ph.D. diss., University
      of Edinburgh, 1971

      Duffield, Ian, "John Eldred Taylor and West African
      Opposition to Indirect Rule in Nigeria," African
      Affairs, 70, no. 280 (July 1971)

      Duffield, Ian, "Some American Influences on Duse
      Mohamed Ali," in Pan-African Biography, edited by
      Robert a Hill, Los Angeles: African Studies Center,
      University of California-Los Angeles, and Crossroads
      Press, African Studies Association, 1987

      Duffield, Ian, "The Business Activities of Duse
      Mohamed Ali: An Example of the Economic Dimension of
      Pan-Africanism," Journal of the Historical Society of
      Nigeria, 4, no. 4 (June 1969)

      Hill, Robert A., "The First England Years and After,
      1912-1916," in Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa,
      edited by John Henrik Clarke and Amy Jacques Garvey,
      New York: Random House, 1974

      Mahmud, Khalil, "Introduction to the Second
      Edition,"in In the Land of the Pharaohs: A Short
      History of Egypt, Second edition, by Duse Mohamed,
      London: Frank Cass, 1968

      Adioukrou Queen Mother, Ivory Coast

      Learn Afrikan Languages Online:

      To Be An Afrikan Woman is to:
      *Be life Affirming
      *Be in partnership with an Afrikan man
      *Be a political organizer
      *Speak for the Ancestors
      *Be An Advocate for Afrika
      *Exert Influence
      *Be a Healer
      *Function As Part of a Collective
      *Be a Scientist of the Sacred
      *Be Divine

      -Marimba Ani

    2. #2

      Join Date
      Feb 2005
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      Dig, Duse Muhammad Ali was a bad brother......He was deported from the USAss when that drag Queen J.Edgar Who'ver figured out Duse wasn't a fool

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