Bamboozled: From American Indians to African Americans
By Yahmeesh Yh'mar Akbar I


"The cruelest lies are often told in silence." ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON, Virginibus Puerisque


The thesis is simple.


The English were bankrupt during The American revolution. They couldn't afford to buy Africans from abroad; so they used Native Americans; outlined in the 1870 Naturalization Act as people of African descent. Unable to hold Native people within indigenous territories, The English created institutional bondage, to preserve the union of British Imperial slavery i.e. Positive law.


Timeline:


•Virginia or Virginia of Sagadahoc was a pinnace (ship) built in 1607–08 by colonists at the Popham Colony. The ship was a project of the Plymouth Company, branch of the proprietary Virginia Company, on land England claimed as belonging to the Virginia Colony. She was the first English-built ship in what is now Maine and possibly in all of the English-colonized areas of North America, During the 12 months the colony existed, the colonists completed one major project: the construction of a 30-ton ship, a pinnace, they called Virginia. It was the first known ship to be built in what would later become the United States of America by Europeans, and the first ship of noteworthy size for which solid evidence exists that she was constructed there. It was also meant to show that the colony could be used for shipbuilding.


•The English arrive in Jamestown, Virginia 1607. Instead of finding gold, they encounter starvation, swamps drought, dysentery, mosquitoes, Indian raids, and finally death.
Of the 104 citizens that had established in Jamestown at the end of the year about half were dead due to the diseases that had infected them (Foner 57). Many after getting ill would not be able to recuperate because there was not enough medical supplies. Many of the settlers after seeing the deaths of many people in the first year due to a combination of physiological and physical factors, decided to move back to England (Kupperman 24).


•Powhatan's confederacy fought 37 years with the Jamestown settlers, from 1607-1644. The 1622 massacre of the settlers, was used as a justification for ongoing seizure of Powhatan land by the colonists for the next ten years.


Historian Betty Wood writes: ..."by virtue of launching this unprovoked assault native Americans had forfeited any legal and moral rights they might previously have claimed to the ownership of the lands they occupied."


Indian poisoning


Colonists who survived the attacks raided the tribes and particularly their corn crops in the summer, and fall of 1622 were so successful that Chief Opechancanough decided to negotiate. Through friendly native intermediaries, a peace parley was arranged between the two groups. Some of the Jamestown leaders, led by Captain William Tucker and Dr. John Potts, poisoned the Powhatans' share of the liquor for the parley's ceremonial toast. The poison incapacitated the Powhatans and about 200 were killed.[25] Chief Opechancanough escaped.


•Until the mid-1660s, the number of white indentured servants was sufficient to meet the labor needs of Virginia and Maryland. Then, in the mid-1660s, the supply of white servants fell sharply. Many factors contributed to the growing shortage of servants. But it was not until the 1680s that black slavery became the dominant labor system on plantations there.


•The first Dutch settlement in the Americas was founded in 1615.


•In 1664, England took over the Dutch colony of New Netherland (including its capital of New Amsterdam) which England renamed the Province of New York. With New Netherland, the English also came to control the former New Sweden (in what is now Delaware), which the Dutch had conquered earlier. This later became part of Pennsylvania after that was established in 1680.


•The thirteen colonies that rebelled in 1775 were (roughly north to south): New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.


•As of 1778, Thomas Kitchin estimated that Europeans (Spain, Portugal, Britain) were bringing an estimated 52,000 slaves (mainly North and South America Indigenous people and Africa) to the Caribbean yearly, with the French bringing the most Africans to the French West Indies (13,000 out of the yearly estimate).


•The American revolution lasted from April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783


The United States borrowed money to finance the war. Food and employment was scarce. Britain seized the ports. People were starving. The colonists could not deploy militias, fleets of ships, into the interior of Africa; the colonist were fighting tooth-and-nail, for there own lives and were bankrupt.


"Congress and the American states had no end of difficulty financing the war. In 1775, there was at most 12 million dollars in gold in the colonies, not nearly enough to cover current transactions, let alone finance a major war. The British made the situation much worse by imposing a tight blockade on every American port, which cut off almost all imports and exports. One partial solution was to rely on volunteer support from militiamen and donations from patriotic citizens. Another was to delay actual payments, pay soldiers and suppliers in depreciated currency, and promise that it would be made good after the war. Indeed, the soldiers and officers were given land grants in 1783 to cover the wages that they had earned but had not been paid during the war...Morris set up a French loan in 1782 to set up the private Bank of North America to finance the war...The skyrocketing inflation was a hardship on the few people who had fixed incomes—but 90 percent of the people were farmers, and were not directly affected by that inflation. Debtors benefited by paying off their debts with depreciated paper. The greatest burden was borne by the soldiers of the Continental Army, whose wages were usually in arrears and declined in value every month, weakening their morale and adding to the hardships of their families.[77]


Beginning in 1777, Congress repeatedly asked the states to provide money. But the states had no system of taxation either, and were little help. By 1780, Congress was making requisitions for specific supplies of corn, beef, pork, and other necessities—an inefficient system that kept the army barely alive."


•The United States Congress passed the Slave Trade Act of 1794, which prohibited the building or outfitting of ships in the U.S. for use in the slave trade. In 1807 Congress outlawed the importation of slaves beginning on 1 January 1808, the earliest date permitted by the United States Constitution for such a ban.


•The Emancipation Proclamation, as matter of public policy, went into effect January 1, 1863. It purported to change the federal legal status of more than 3 million enslaved people in the designated areas of the South from "slave" to "free", although its immediate effect was less.


•On February 1, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln approved the Joint Resolution of Congress submitting the proposed amendment to the state legislatures. The necessary number of states ratified it by December 6, 1865. The 13th amendment to the United States Constitution provides that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."


•The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt. Black Codes restricted black people's right to own property, conduct business, buy and lease land, and move freely through public spaces.[45] A central element of the Black Codes were vagrancy laws. States criminalized men who were out of work, or who were not working at a job whites recognized.[40] Failure to pay a certain tax, or to comply with other laws, could also be construed as vagrancy. Nine southern states updated their vagrancy laws in 1865–1866. Of these, eight allowed convict leasing (a system in which state prison hired out convicts for labor) and five allowed prisoner labor for public works projects.[47] This created a system that established incentives to arrest black men, as convicts were supplied to local governments and planters as workers.


•The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868,


Text: Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.


•The Naturalization Act of 1870 (16 Stat. 254) was a United States federal law that created a system of controls for the naturalization process and penalties for fraudulent practices. It is also noted for extending the naturalization process to "aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent."


•Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States. Enacted after the Reconstruction period, these laws continued in force until 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in 1890 with a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.


•The Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. Although in some cases it took years for this decision to be acted on.The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education.


Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but years of action and court challenges have been needed to unravel the many means of institutional discrimination.


In conclusion, The United States used indigenous, native labor, from 1607-to the present.


African by legacy.


Native American by birth.


European participation in the slave trade


"Although Europeans were the market for slaves, Europeans rarely entered the interior of Africa, due to fear of disease and fierce African resistance.[51] In Africa, convicted criminals could be punished by enslavement, a punishment which became more prevalent as slavery became more lucrative. Since most of these nations did not have a prison system, convicts were often sold or used in the scattered local domestic slave market." Atlantic Slave trade - Wikipedia


Peace be upon you


•Indian massacre of 1622
•Dutch colonization of the Americas
•Virginia (pinnace)
•Jack D. Forbes,
Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples
•American Revolution
•Atlantic slave trade
•Slavery in the United States
•The Emancipation Proclamation
•13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Legal Slavery (1865)
•Black codes
•14th amendment
•1870 Naturalization Act
•Jim Crow