Your name or email adress:
Do you already have an account?
Forgot your password?
  • Log in or Sign up


    Results 1 to 6 of 6
    1. #1

      Join Date
      Oct 2004
      Location
      Sirus Star System
      Posts
      2,020
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 0/0
      Given: 0/0
      Rep Power
      196

      Who Were the Hyksos?by Troy Fox


      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      Who Were the Hyksos?
      by Troy Fox


      http://touregypt.net/featurestories/hyksos.htm

      The Hyksos were an important influence on Egyptian history, particularly at the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. Most of what we know of the nature of the Hyksos depends upon written sources (of the Egyptians), such as the Rhind Papyrus. Also of considerable importance is the systematic excavation of their capital, Avaris (Tell el-Dab'a).

      Aamu was the contemporary term used to distinguish the people of Avaris, the Hyksos capital in Egypt, from Egyptians. Egyptologists conventionally translate aamu as "asiatics" The Jewish historian, Josephus, in his Contra Apionem, claims that Manetho was the first to use the Greek term, Hyksos, incorrectly translated as "shepherd-kings". Contemporary Egyptians during the Hyksos invasion designated them as hikau khausut, which meant "rulers of foreign countries", a term that originally only referred to the ruling caste of the invaders. However, today the term Hyksos has come to refer to the whole of these people who ruled Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt's ancient history, and had to be driven out of the land by the last ruler of the 17th Dynasty and the earliest ruler of Egypt's New Kingdom.

      Josephus claims to quote directly from Manetho, who's original history is lost to us, when he describes the conquest and occupation of Egypt by the Hyksos:

      "By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow; and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they hen burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of gods...Finally, they appointed as king one of their number whose name was Salitis."

      Some of this rings true, while other parts seem not to be. It appears that the Hyksos left much of Egypt alone. It is clear that Avaris (Tell el-Dab'a) was occupied by a people who exhibited specifically non-Egyptian cultural traits. We find this in the layout of the town itself, the houses, and particularly the burials, which were intermixed with the living community, unlike those of the Egyptians. While we know that the Hyksos established centers, as their influenced gradually moved towards Memphis along the eastern edge of the Delta, at Farasha, Tell el-Sahaba, Bubastis, Inshas and Tell el-Yahudiyas, very little of this particular culture has been found at other Egyptian sites. At the same time, the Hyksos living in Egypt have been described as "Peculiarly Egyptian". They were great builders and artisans. And little seems to have changed between the Egyptian style of governing, and that of the Hyksos. While the Hyksos imported some of their own gods, they also appear to have honored the Egyptian deities as well, such as Seth, who became assimilated with some Hyksos deities. Of course, we must also recall that Egypt already had somewhat of a history with the "Asiatics", including wars and considerable trade, so it would not be surprising to find some mix of cultures even among the Egyptians of the Delta.

      The Hyksos were basically a Semitic people who were able to wrestle control of Egypt from the early Second Intermediate rulers of the 13th Dynasty, inaugurating the 15th Dynasty. Their names mostly come from the West Semitic languages, and earlier suggestions that some of these people were Hurrian or even Hittite have not been confirmed. However, it is not easy to determine their origins within that Asiatic region, and at Tell el-Dab'a, the culture of the people was not static, but rapidly developed new traits and discarded old ones. Yet the reason for, and method of the cultural mixing and rapid development of Asiatics at Tell el-Dab'a remains unclear.

      One hypothesis is that the basic population of Egyptians allowed, from time to time, a new influx of settlers, first from the region of Lebanon and Syria, and subsequently from Palestine and Cyprus. The leaders of these people eventually married into the local Egyptian families, a theory that is somewhat supported by preliminary studies of human remains at Tell el-Dab'a. Indeed, parallels for the foreign traits of the Hyksos at Tell el-Dab'a have been found at southern Palestinian sites such as Tell el-Ajjul, at the Syrian site of Ebla and at Byblos in modern Labanon.

      Hence, the Hyksos rule of Egypt was probably the climax of waves of Asiatic immigration and infiltration into the northeastern Delta of the Nile. This process was perhaps aided by the Egyptians themselves. For example, Amenemhat II records, in unmistakable language, a campaign by sea to the Lebanese coast that resulted in a list of booty comprising 1,554 Asiatics, and considering that Egypt's eastern border was fortified and probably patrolled by soldiers, it is difficult to understand how massive numbers of foreign people could have simply migrated into northern Egypt. These people migrated, or otherwise moved to the region from the 12th Dynasty onward, and by the 13th Dynasty, this migration became widespread.

      The Hyksos did eventually utilize superior bronze weapons, chariots and composite bows to help them take control of Egypt, though in reality, the relative slowness of their advance southwards from the Delta seems to support the argument that the process was gradual and did not ultimately turn on the possession of overwhelming military superiority. Hence, by about 1720 BC, they had grown strong enough, at the expense of the Middle Kingdom kings, to gain control of Avaris in the northeastern Delta. This site eventually became the capital of the Hyksos kings, but within 50 years, they had also managed to take control of the important Egyptian city of Memphis.

      Given this slow advance by the Hyksos rulers into southern Egypt, it seems reasonable to infer that the superior military technology of the Hyksos was but an adjunct to their exploitation of the political weakness of the late Middle Kingdom.

      However, the Hyksos never really ruled Egypt completely. Their expansion southwards was eventually checked. In fact, at least early on, this may have been the result of a massive plague, for at Tell el-Dab'a we find mass graves with little attention to the burials. Though the ruler of Avaris claimed to be King of Upper and Lower Egypt, we know from a stelae dating to the 17th Dynasty king Kamose, that Hermopolis marked the Avaris' king's theoretical southern boundary, while Cusae, a little further south, was actually the specific boarder point. Yet Southern, or Upper Egypt was reduced to a vassaldom, probably as a result of the effectiveness, eventually, of the Hyksos military forces, at least until the reign of Kamose. Therefore, we do regard them as the legitimate rulers of the whole country during parts of the Second Intermediate Period, considered a chaotic time which the Hyksos at least partially helped to create in Egypt.

      Eventually, the Hyksos tolerance of rival claimants to the land beginning in the 15th Dynasty would spell their expulsion by the end of the 17th Dynasty, beginning with the reign of Kamose. By now, the baleful experience of foreign rule had done much to shatter the traditional Egyptian mindset of superiority in both culture and the security of the Egyptian state in the face of external threats.

      Yet, Egypt would eventually benefit considerably from their experience of foreign rule, and it has been suggested that the Hyksos rule of Egypt was far less damaging then later 18th Dynasty records would lead us to believe. It would make Egypt a stronger country, with a much more viable military. Because of Egypt's strength and ability to isolate herself from the outside world, cultural and technological growth was often stagnant. Until the Hyksos invasion, the history of Egypt and Asia were mostly isolated, while afterwards, they would be permanently entwined. The Hyksos brought more than weapons to Egypt. It was due to the Hyksos that the hump backed Zebu cattle made their appearance in Egypt. Also, we find new vegetable and fruit crops that were cultivated, along with improvements in pottery and linen arising from the introduction of improved potter's wheels and the vertical loom.

      Perhaps one of the greatest contribution of the Hyksos was the preservation of famous Egyptian documents, both literary and scientific. During the reign of Apophis, the fifth king of the “Great Hyksos,” scribes were commissioned to recopy Egyptian texts so they would not be lost. One such text was the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. This unique text, dating from about 3000 BC, gives a clear perspective of the human body as studied by the Egyptians, with details of specific clinical cases, examinations, and prognosis. The Westcar Papyrus preserved the only known version of an ancient Egyptian story that may have otherwise been lost. Other restored documents include the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, the most important mathematical exposition ever found in Egypt.

      But it was the diffusion of innovations with more obvious military applications, such as bronze-working, which went far to compensate for the technological backwardness of Middle Kingdom Egypt, and it was these advantages that eventually allowed the kingdom at Thebes to gain back control of the Two Lands.

      See also:

      Manetho on the Hyksos
      References: READ MORE

      http://touregypt.net/featurestories/hyksos.htm

      http://search.msn.com/results.aspx?q=Hyksos&FORM=QBRE



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    2. #2
      manifestdestiny's Avatar
      manifestdestiny is offline Administrator

      Join Date
      Jun 2006
      Location
      Detroit
      Posts
      1,029
      Blog Entries
      13
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 1/0
      Given: 2/0
      Rep Power
      155

      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      thanks for the post, very informative. Although he did not specify, Chancellor Williams made reference to this invasion by foreign asiatics

    3. #3
      Pain's Avatar
      Pain is offline Warrior

      Join Date
      Apr 2006
      Location
      Krakkaville, USA
      Posts
      312
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 0/0
      Given: 0/0
      Rep Power
      115

      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      I wonder what Aamu really translates out to.
      Bockra si mi gun but ing cyaa run
      awl fly chu im bak, ed drop a grung
      eye an brain mi nuh si weh dat tun
      wi bun dem wid tya dem find dem inna drum
      shoot dem a farrin, kill dem a Kingston
      any weh wi fyne dem, dem life aguh done

    4. #4

      Join Date
      Sep 2004
      Location
      modern day rome,belly of the beast!
      Posts
      2,643
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 2/0
      Given: 0/0
      Rep Power
      269

      Thumbs up this is great information


      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      i have been waiting for info like this!!

      they practically destroyed egypt and morocco,@pain,with the persian invasion
      of egypt and morocco,during 600 to 700 ad, thats when the hyksos,brought
      I.S.L.A.M in slavery legacy afrikans were murdered,( islam) and ALLAH
      ARAB LEECHS LIVING OFF AFRIKAN HUMANITY



      sotito! sododo! soora masika!
      " perform truth,perform righteousness,perform kindness and avoid cruelty!"

      Nipa nye abe dua na ne ho ahyia ne ho. Or, Se mmerenkensono si ne ti ase a, na ewo dea asase reka kyere no. Also, Nnua nyinaa bewu agya abe.

    5. #5
      brother kool's Avatar
      brother kool is offline Warrior

      Join Date
      Jul 2006
      Location
      south side of chicago
      Posts
      95
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 0/0
      Given: 0/0
      Rep Power
      66

      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      thanks for the post
      I always see them mentioned as the Sheapord Kings but that is a mistake huh.
      very in formative post
      thanx

    6. #6
      EgyptQuest is offline Premium Member

      Join Date
      Aug 2009
      Location
      USA
      Posts
      1
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 0/0
      Given: 0/0
      Rep Power
      0

      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      European 'Jews' are now trying to make Egyptians white, because their own scriptures show that all Israelites were descendants of Egyptians.

      Blondes in ancient Egypt?


      NO Egypt text identifies any enemy as Hyksos.. find the word Hyksos
      NO Egyptian text states Hyksos ruled any part of Egypt, nor that Avaris was the Hyksos capital
      Egyptian text does state that they fought different battles at different times.
      In that text it does not say any ruled northern Egypt but if you read the text they use, you will see that the writer stated that an Egyptian king ruled upper and lower Egypt.

      The Hyksos caper comes from, trying to prove Israelites ruled Egypt.
      I welcome any contributions, challenges or questions on this topic
      EncEg_Hyksos-owner@yahoogroups.com

      Because I have lots of pictures I divided the blog into one post at a time. If you are into the Hyksos caper, start here
      HYKSOS-TRANSCRIPT: HYS-CHARIOTS-HORSES
      then at the bottom of each page, click on newer post


    LinkBacks (?)

    Thread Information

    Users Browsing this Thread

    There are currently 1 users browsing this thread. (0 members and 1 guests)

    Similar Threads

    1. Troy Davis petition drive at NAACP. The message is written. Come support Troy
      By Pragmatic in forum Our Prisoner's Of War (POW)
      Replies: 9
      Last Post: 09-27-2011, 02:38 PM
    2. Troy Davis needs your help
      By Dr. G in forum Our Prisoner's Of War (POW)
      Replies: 2
      Last Post: 06-07-2009, 04:07 PM
    3. Troy Davis needs your help
      By Dr. G in forum Open Forum
      Replies: 0
      Last Post: 06-02-2009, 03:48 PM
    4. 9/29 DC for Troy Davis!
      By nattyreb in forum D.C./B-More
      Replies: 0
      Last Post: 09-26-2008, 02:13 PM
    5. Act NOW for Troy Davis!
      By nattyreb in forum Prison / Police Industrial Complex
      Replies: 3
      Last Post: 09-11-2008, 07:56 AM

    Thread Participants: 5

    Posting Permissions

    • You may not post new threads
    • You may not post replies
    • You may not post attachments
    • You may not edit your posts
    •  


    About

      Assata Shakur Speaks is an Forum Devoted To Assata Shakur And All Political Prisoners Around The World.
      Assata Shakur Speaks Is An Oasis Of Pan African Information Geared Towards The Liberation Of Afrikan People.

    Follow Us On

    Twitter Facebook youtube Flickr DavianArt Dribbble RSS Feed



    BACK TO TOP