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    1. #1
      Mosi Ngozi's Avatar
      Mosi Ngozi is offline Pan-Afrikanist

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      Chronology Of Ancient Egypt


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      BACK IN THE DAY: A WORKING CHRONOLOGY OF THE ROYAL DYNASTIES OF KMT
      (A DETAILED LIST OF THE QUEENS AND KINGS, MAJOR DIETIES, RFMARKABLE PERSONALITIES, AND OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENTS OF PHARAONIC EGYPT)

      COMPILED BY RUNOKO RASHIDI


      DEDICATED TO CHANCELLOR WILLIAMS, YOSEF A.A. BEN-JOCHANNAN, AND ASA G. HILLIARD III

      Kingdom of Ta-Seti / Nubian Dynasty (Qustul): ca. 3400 (?)--3200 B.C.E.

      Kemite Dynasty I: ca. 3200(?)-2890 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
      Thinite Dynasty
      King Narmer (Menes) rules over united Kmt.
      The White Wall (Memphis) is established as Kmt's administrative capital.
      Temples erected and dedicated to Ptah at the White Wall (Memphis) and Neit at Sau (Sais).
      King Aha (`The Fighter')
      King Djer (Athothis) reigns 47 years.
      Books written on anatomy.
      King Djet
      King Den (Udimu) experiments with stone as a building material.
      Queen Mer-neit
      King Anedjib
      King Semerkhet
      King Qaa reigns 25 years.

      Kemite Dynasty II: ca. 2890-2686 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
      Thinite Dynasty
      King Hotepsekemui
      King Reneb
      King Nynetjer reigns approximately 38 years.
      King Peribsen--Strong Advocate of Set
      King Khasekemui
      Kemite Monarchs of Dynasties I and II buried in mastaba tombs at Sakkara.
      Royal cenotaphs (false tombs) constructed at Aabdju (Abydos) .

      Kemite Dynasty III: ca. 2686-2613 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
      Memphite Dynasty
      King Sanekht establishes a Kemite presence in the Sinai Peninsula.
      Bedjmes (Noted Ship-Builder)
      King Zoser-Construction of the 'Step Pyramid' (World's first massive stone building).
      Imhotep (Brilliant administrator, architect, author, physican and priest)
      King Sekhemkhet begins the construction of a step pyramid at Sakkara.
      King Khaba--Construction of the 'Layer Pyramid' at Zawiet et Aryan.
      King Huni--Construction of a major pyramid at Meydum.
      Important Gods: Aturn, Hathor, Horus. Neit, Ptah, Re and Set.

      Kemite Dynasty IV: ca. 2613-2494 B.C.E.
      Memphite Dynasty
      King Nae-rnaet Sneferu--Constructi on of the 'Bent Pyramid' at Dahshur.
      Construction of the 'Northern Stone Pyramid' (First true pyramid) at Dahshur.
      Queen Hetepheres (Great Royal Wife of Sneferu; Mother of Khufu)
      Military conflicts between Kmt and Ta-Seti.
      Active commercial relations between Kmt and Phoenicia.
      Military conflicts between Kmt and Libya.
      King Khufu--Construction of the 'Great Pyramid' at Khem (Giza).
      The Instruction of Prince Hardjedef recorded.
      King Dedefre reigns eight years.
      Rising power of the Priesthood of Re at Northern Ann (Heliopolis) .
      King Khafre--Constructio n of the 'Second Pyramid' of Khem (Giza).
      Hor-m-akhet (Sphinx of Giza) carved in the image of King Khafre.
      Kinjh Menkaure--Construct ion of the 'Third Pyramid' of Khern (Giza).
      King Shepseskaf-- Buried in a distinct bomb known as 'Mastabet el-Fara'un.
      Hesyre (outstanding physician)

      Kemite Dynasty V: ca. 2494-2345 B.C.E.
      Heliopolitan Dynasty (Sons of Re)
      King Userkaf--Introducti on of sun-temples.
      Construction of a pyramid at Sakkara.
      King Sahure--Wars with Libyans
      Construction of a pyramid at Djedu (Abusir).
      Expedition to Punt ('God's Land') on the Somali coast.
      King Neferirkare Kakai--Construction of a pyramid at Djedu (Abusir).
      The Royal Annals of the Palermo Stone inscribed.
      King Shepseskare Isi reigns seven years.
      The Admonitions of the Vizier Kagermri recorded.
      King Nyuserre--Construct ion of a pyramid at Djedu (Abusir).
      Construction of a splendid stone sun-temple at Abu Ghurab.
      King Menkauhor Akauhor reigns eight years.
      King Djedkare Isesi reigns 39 years.
      Construction of the 'Pyramid of the Sentinel.'
      Construction of the last known sun-temple.
      Expedition to Punt ('God's Land') on the Somali coast.
      The Maxims of Ptahhoteh recorded.
      King Unas inscribes his tomb with the earliest known Pyramid Texts.

      Kemite Dynasty VI: ca. 2345-2181 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
      Memphite Dynasty
      King Seheteptowy Teti reigns twelve years.
      Weni (Governor of Upper Kmt)
      King Merire Pepi I reigns 49 years.
      Major African military operations against Asiatics.
      King Merenre Antyemsaf I journeys to the First Cataract to meet the Nubian monarchs.
      Harkhuf, the Kemetic governor of Ta-Seri, leads four expeditions to Yarn (Inner Africa).
      King Neferkare Pepi II reigns longer (94 years) than any monarch in history.
      Tax immune status granted to the Temple of Min at Gebtu (Koptos).
      Queen Regent Nitocris
      Climatic conditions worsen steadily; Usurpation of power by provincial leaders.
      Dynasty VI Monarchs buried in small pyramid tombs at Djedu (Abusir) and Sakkara.
      Important Gods: Atum, Hathor, Horns, Isis, Min, Neit, Osiris, Ptah, Re and Sebek.

      Kemite Dynasty VII: ca. 2181-2173 B.C.E.
      Memphite Dynasty
      King Neferkare ('The Younger')
      King Neferkare Neby
      King Djedkare Shemay
      King eferkare Khendu
      King Meryenhor
      King Neferkamin
      King Nykare
      King Neferkare Tereru
      King Neferkahor
      Appearance of early Coffin Texts in Kemite tombs.

      Kemite Dynasty VIII: ca. 2173-2160 B.C.E.
      Memphite Dynasty
      King Wadjkare Pepysonbe reigns four years.
      King Neferkamin Anu reigns two years.
      King Kahare Ibi--Construction of a small pyramid near Sakkara .
      King Neferkare reigns two years.
      King Neferkauhor Kapuibi reigns for little more than a year.
      Kmt experiences widespread internal disorder; Asiatics settle in Northern Kmt.

      Kemite Dynasty IX (Selected Monarchs)
      Herakleopolitan Dynasty House of Akhtoy
      King Kheti I
      King Kheti II

      Kemite Dynasty X (Selected Monarchs)
      Herakleopolitan Dynasty House of Akhtoy
      King Neferkare
      King Kheti III
      King Merikare

      Kemite Dynasty XI: ca. 2130-1991 B.C.E .
      Waset Dynasty
      King Tepya Mentuhotep I
      King Sehertowy Intef I
      King Wahankh Intef If
      King Nakhmebepnefer Intef III
      King Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II reunites Kmt in 2040 B.C.E.
      Waset (Thebes) becomes the Kemite capital.
      Queen Ashayet (Great Royal Wife of Mentuhotep II)
      Queen Kawit (Great Royal Wife of Mentuhotep II)
      Asiatics driven from Kmt's Eastern Delta.
      Reestablishment of strong central monarchy.
      Construction of a distinct rock-cut tomb surmounted by a pyramid at Waset.
      King Sankhkare Mentuhotep III--Major expedition to Punt on the Somali Coast.
      King Nebtowyre Mentuhotep IV reigns briefly.
      Amenemhet (Vizier of Kmt during the reign of Nebtowyre Mentuhotep IV)
      Widespread democratization of Kemite religious beliefs.
      Important Gods: Amen, Hathor, Montu, Osiris and Re.

      Kemite Dynasty XII: 1991-1786 B.C.E.
      Waset/Ta-Seti Dynasty
      King Sehetepibre Amenemhet I moves the capital of Kmt north to It-Tawy.
      Queen Neferu (Great Royal Wife of Amenenhet I)
      King Kheperkare Senusret I orders the Temple of Amen at Ipet-sut (Karnak) rebuilt in stone.
      Red granite obelisks erected at Northern Anu (Heliopolis) .
      Major expedition to Punt ('God's Land') on the Somali Coast.
      King Nubkaure Amenemhet II dedicates a temple in Sinai to the goddess Hathor.
      Construction of 'The White Pyramid' at Dahshur.
      Regular commercial relations with Punt.
      King Khakheperre Senusret II--Kemetic relations with Minoan Crete.
      Construction of 'The Shining Pyramid' at El Lahun.
      Queen Nefert (Great Royal Wife of Senusret II)
      Resumption of expeditions to Punt on the Somali Coast.
      King Khakaure Senusret III--Military campaigns against Nubians and Asiatics.
      Erection of strong Kemite defensive fortifications along the Nubian frontier.
      Major reorganization of Kmt's administrative system.
      King Nymare Amenemhet III reigns 47 years.
      Construction of 'The Black Pyramid' at Dahshur.
      Construction of a major pyramid at Haware.
      Construction of the `Egyptian Labyrinth' (The largest building in antiquity).
      Exploitation of copper mines in the Sinai Peninsula.
      Massive irrigation and land reclamation projects in the Fayum Oasis.
      King Makherure Amenemhet IV reigns eight years.
      Queen Regent Sobkkare Sebeknefrure (Daughter of Amenemhet III)
      Kemite Monarchs of Dynasty XII buried in pyramid tombs near Ineb-hedj (Memphis).

      Kemite,Dynasty XIII: ca. 1786-1700 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
      Waset Dynasty
      King Sebekhotep I reigns five years.
      King Awibre Hor reigns only seven months.
      King Userkare Khendjer--Construct ion of a small pyramid near Dahshur.
      King Khasekhemre Neferhotep I reigns eleven years.
      King Khaneferre Sebekhotep IV reigns eight years.
      King Khahetepre Sebekhotep VI reigns four years,
      King Wahibre Yayebi reigns ten years.
      King Merneferre Iy reigns 23 years.
      King Nehesi reigns in Southern Kmt.
      Important Gods: Amen, Hathor, Montu, Osiris, Re and Sebek.

      Kemite Dynasty XIV: ca. 1730-1680 B.C.E.
      (?) Memphite Dynasty
      Few significant monuments constructed; Collapse of central government.
      Asiatic Hyksos invade from the East and occupy Kmt for more than a century.

      Dynasty XV: ca. 1730-1680 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
      Hyksos Dynasty
      King Khyan
      King Apophis I
      King Apophis II

      Dynasty XVI: ca. 1680-1560 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
      Hyksos Dynasty (Authority limited to Northern Kmt)
      King Semqen
      King Amu
      King Apophis III
      Nubians ransack and burn Kemetic fortresses in Ta-Seti

      Dynasty XVII: ca. 1650-1560 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
      Kemite Waset Dynasty (Authority limited to Southern Kmt)
      King Nubkheperre Intef VI
      King Senakhtenre
      The scribe Ahmose copies the Rhind Mathematical Fapvrus.
      King Seqenenre Tao I ('The Elder')-Queen Tetisheri
      King Seqenere Tao II ('The Brave')-Queen Ahhotep I
      King Wadjkheperre Kamose escalates Kmt's war of liberation against Hyksos.

      Kemite Dynasty XVIII: ca. 1560-1295 B.C.E.
      Waset Dynasty
      King Nebpehtyre Ahmose I ('The Liberator')- -Queen Ahmose-Nefertari
      Expulsion of Hyksos; Reunification of Kmt.
      Queen Regent Ahmose-Nefertari
      King Djeserkare Amenhotep I reigns twenty years.
      Amen becomes the state god of Kmt.
      King Akheperkare Thutmose I extends Kemite military power to the River Euphrates.
      King Akheperenre Thutmose II reigns four years.
      Makare Hatshepsut ('The Female Horus') reigns 21 years.
      Major expedition to Punt (`God's Land') on the Somali coast.
      Senemut (Overseer of Works during the reign of Hatshepsut)
      Nehesi (Chief Treasurer of Kmt during the reign of Hatshepsut)
      Enormous obelisks raised at Ipet-sut (Karnak).
      Senenmut designs a distinct mortuary temple for Hatshepsut at Waset.
      King Menkheperre Thutmose III directs the furthest extensions of Kemite military power.
      General Amenemhab (Superior Army Officer and Confidant to King Thutmose III)
      Kemite relations with Minoan Crete.
      Expedition to Punt ('God's Land') on the Somali coast.
      Table of Karnak King-List recorded.
      King Akheprure Amenhotep II continues the military policies of Thutmose III.
      Commercial relations with Punt.
      King Menkheprure Thutmose IV--Evcavation of Hor-m-akhet (Sphinx of Giza).
      King Nebmare Amenhotep III (`The Magnificent' ) reigns 38 years.
      Queen Tiye (Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III ; Mother of Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten)
      Construction of the 'Colossi of Memnon.'
      Kmt achieves enormous power and prosperity.
      King Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten renounces Amen; Aten established as the sole god.
      Queen Nefertiti (Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten)
      Kemite capital transferred to Akhetaten (El Amarna).
      Naturalism adopted in Kemetic art.
      Ankhkheprure Smenkare (Coregent for three years with Akhenaten)
      King Nebkheprure Tutankhamen restores the national supremacy of Amen.
      Kemite capital returned to Waset.
      King Kheperkheprure Ay reigns two years.
      King Djeserkheprure Horemheb--Strong Advocate of Amen
      Important Gods: Amen, Amen-Re, Aten, Hathor, Isis, Osiris, Ptah and Thoth.

      Kemite Dynasty IXX: ca. 1295-1187 B.C.E.
      Ramesside Dynasty
      King Menpehtyre Ramses I has brief reign.
      King Memrnare Seti I ('Bringer of the Renaissance' )
      Military campaigns against Libyans and Hittites.
      Queen Tuya (Great Royal Wife of Seti I: Mother of Ramses II)
      Construction of the 'Osireion' temple at Aabdju (Abydos).
      Table of Abydos King-List recorded.
      King Usermare Ramses II ('Ramses the Great') reigns 67 years.
      Queen Nefertari (Great Royal Wife of Ramses II)
      Queen Istnofret (Great Wife of Ramses II, Mother of Khaemwaset and Merneptah)
      Kemite capital relocated to Pi-Ramses in the Eastern Delta.
      Historic battle of Kadesh fought along the banks of the River Orontes in Syria.
      Historic peace treaty concluded between Kmt and the kingdom of Hatti.
      Construction of the 'Ramesseum' (The mortuary temple of Ramses II).
      The Tale of the Two Brothers (A Kemite fairy tale) composed.
      Prince Khaemwaset (Administrator, archaeologist, magician and high priest of Ptah)
      Construction of major temples in Ta-Seti (Lower Nubia).
      Commercial relations with Punt ('God's Land') on the Somali coast.
      Prince Khaemwaset repairs numerous Old Kingdom pyramids and sun-temples.
      Turin Canon of Kings recorded.
      King Baenre Merneptah repels a major invasion of Kmt by the Sea Peoples.
      Revolt in Ta-Seti crushed.
      King Menmire Atnenmesses reigns briefly.
      King Userkheprure Seti II--Queen Tawosre (Great Royal Wife of Seti II)
      King Siptah reigns six years.
      Queen Regent Tawosre reigns eight years.

      Kemite Dynasty XX: ca. 1187-1080 B.C .E. (Selected Monarchs)
      Ramesside Dynasty
      King Userkhaure Sethnakhte reigns two years.
      King Usermare-Meryamen Ramses III repels three invasions of Libyans and Sea Peoples.
      Major expedition to Punt ('God's Land') on the Somali coast.
      Kmt experiences prolonged labor troubles and turbulence among government workers.
      Kmt experiences an inflationary rise in wheat prices.
      Kmt experiences a sharp decline in the value of copper and bronze.
      King Hiqmare Ramses IV reigns six years.
      Gradual weakening of central authority.
      Kemite royal tombs robbed with impunity by high officials.
      King Neferkare Ramses IX reigns nineteen years.
      Kmt experiences severe famine.
      Craft of mummification reaches its zenith.
      King Ramses XI proclaims a Kemite renaissance.
      Herihor rules over Upper Kmt and Ta-Seti.
      Smendes rules over Lower Kmt.
      Kemite Monarchs of Dynasties XVIII--XX buried in rock-cut bombs at Waset.
      The Book of the Dead found in Kemite tombs.
      Important Gods: Amen, Amen-Re, Hathor, Khonsu, Mut, Osiris, Ptah and Set.

      Kemite Dynasty XXI: ca. 1080 B.C.E.--945 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs) Waset/Tanite Dynasty (Authority divided between Theban Priesthood and Delta Princes)
      Herihor (First Prophet of Amen)
      Smendes
      The Journev of Wenamen to Phoenicia composed.
      Psusennes I
      Pinudjem I (First Prophet of Amen)
      Usermare Amenemope
      Menkheperre (First Prophet of Amen)
      Pinudjem II (First Prophet of Amen)
      Psusennes II
      Tanite Monarchs of Kemite Dynasty XXI buried in sunken tombs in the Eastern Delta.

      Kemite Dynasty XXII: ca. 945--817 B.C.E.
      Libyan Dynasty
      King Sheshonq I attacks Palestine and plunders Jerusalem.
      King Osorkon I
      King Takelot I
      King Osorkon II
      Civil war rages intermittently in Kmt for 25 years.
      King Sheshonq II
      The power of Assyria grows steadily.
      King Takelot II
      King Sheshonq III reigns 52 years.
      Prince Osorkon becomes First Prophet of Amen at Waset.
      King Pami
      King Sheshonq IV
      Kemite relations with Spain.
      Kemite capitals at Dja'net (Tanis) and Bast (Bubastis).

      Kemite Dynasty XXIII: ca. 817(?)-7311 B.C.E.
      Tanite Dynasty
      King Pedibast I
      King Sheshonq
      Local rulers proliferate in Kmt.
      King Osorkon
      King Takelot
      Kemite capital at Nay-to-hut (Leontopolis)

      Kemite Dynasty XXIV: ca. 730-715 B.C.E.
      Saite dynasty
      King Tefnakhte makes a treaty with Hosea of Samaria against Assyria.
      King Bakenrenef (Boccaoris) supports the King of Israel against Assyria.

      Kemite Dynasty XXV: ca. 750-656 B.C.E.
      Kushite Dynasty
      King Alara
      King Kashta
      Amenirdas I (Divine Wife of the God Amen)
      King Piye (Piankhi) conquers Upper and Lower Kmt; Rules from Kush.
      King Shabaka completes the total reunification of Kmt; Rules from Waset.
      Recording of the ancient creation story known as the Memphite Theology.
      Prince Taharqa commands African invasion of Spain.
      King Shabataka--Introduc tion of demotic script.
      Capitals at Ineb-hedj (Memphis), Waset and Napata.
      King Taharqa commands African military campaign in Palestine.
      Assyrian armies invade Kmt and sack Ineb-hedj (Memphis) in 671 B.C.E.
      Assyrian armies invade Kmt and sack Waset in 663 B.C E.
      King Tanwetamani severely defeated by Assyrians.
      Kushite Monarchs of Dynasty XXV buried in pyramid tombs at El Kurru and Nuri.

      Kemite Dynasty XXVI: ca. 656-525 B.C.E.
      Saite Dynasty
      King Psametik I
      King Necho
      Kemite military defeated by Babylonians at Carchemish
      Kemite naval exploration of African coasts.
      King Psametik II
      King Apries
      Thales in Kmt.
      King Ahmose II (Amasis)
      Pythagoras in Kmt.
      King Psametik III
      Deification of Imhotep.
      Jeremiah in Kmt.
      Dynasty XXVI Monarchs buried in the Temple of Neit at Sau (Sais) .
      Persian invasion and conquest of Kmt under Cambyses II in 525 B.C.E.
      Kmt incorporated into the Persian Empire

      Dynasty XXVII: 525-404 B.C.E.
      Persian Dynasty
      Cambyses II
      Darius I
      Xerxes
      Herodotus in Kmt.
      Ataxerxes
      Darius II
      Kemite capital at Susa or Babylon.

      Kemite Dynasty XXVIII: ca. 404-390 B.C.E.
      Saite Dynasty (The Amyrtaios)
      King Amyrtis

      Kemite Dynasty XXIX: ca. 390(?)-378 B.C.E.
      Memphite Dynasty
      King Nepherites I
      King Nepherites II
      King Achoris
      Plato in Kmt.

      Kemite Dynasty XXX: ca. 378-341 B.C.E.
      Last Native Kemite Dynasty
      King Nectanebo I
      Kemite capital at Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos) .
      King Teos

      Greek invasion and occupation of Kmt under Alexander of Macedon in 322 B.C .E .

      PTOLEMAIC PERIOD
      Ptolemy I (Soter)
      Alexandria becomes the Kemetic administrative capital.
      Manetho (Famous African Scholar-Priest) writes a History of Egypt (Aegvtiaca) in which he divides the Kemetic royal families into dynasties.
      Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) opens ports at Arsinoe, Myos Hormos and Berenice.
      Alexandrian Museum and Library founded.
      Eratosthenes (Celebrated African Scholar and the First Librarian at Alexandria) accurately charts the earth's circumference and writes the Canon of the Kings of Thebes.
      Construction of the temples at Edfu, Esna, Philae, and Kom Ombo.
      The Rosetta Stone (A bilingual decree of Ptolemy IV) inscribed in 196 B.C.E.
      Cleopatra VII commits suicide and Augustus Caesar claims Kmt as a province of the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E.
      You are here because you know something,what you
      know you can't explain,but you feel it.You've felt it
      your entire life; that theres something wrong with the
      world.You don't know what it is but it's there; a
      splinter in your mind... the matrix




    2. #2
      Fenix's Avatar
      Fenix is offline aFROdemic

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      Thanks for this post Bro!
      "Oh Africa! When shall be the term of thy long degradation? Behold here, even now, I pledge thee, O my Mother, that I shall devote my years to thee, shall work for thy redemption, shall love thee and be proud of thee and glory in thy power now lying dormant and shall strive to bring it to the light. Take my youth, my labors, my love, my all and do thou when I shall have died for thee, take me to thy bosom, an untamed, untamable African." -Hubert Harrison

    3. #3
      Aka_Y's Avatar
      Aka_Y is offline Warrior

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      When talking about the chronology of ancient Egypt it constantly strikes me as odd that there is no standard timeline that scholars use to describe the history of Kemet. for example, begindates range between 3500 and 3000(sometimes even lower) as the birth of Kemet, furthermore there is absolute no unison in these chronologies whatsoever.

      All chronologies today are based on the texts written by the Greek scribe Manetho who lived during the time when the Greeks occupied Egypt. He wrote the entire chronology of Egypt in one great work called Aegyptiaca, which is now 'lost'.
      The information we have today comes from people who quoted from his book such as Julius Africanus and Eusibius. Scholars agree that the version of Africanus is the most accurate. This version places the beginning of the first dynasty in 5717 BC and was accepted for a long time. That is until Eduard Meyer entered the scene.

      Meyer reasoned that few monuments were built during certain dynasties and concluded that these periods stood for prolonged periods of disorder and chaos. The hundreds of years that Manetho subscribed to these periods could not have been so in reality. He also argued that Manetho had confused simultaneous dynasties
      As a result he compressed Egyptian history by 2000 years. His chronology was then perfected by James Henry Breasted. This Meyer-Breasted chonology or short chronology is now freely used by most academics who still can't make an agreement over just when certain dynasties began.

      However, from the moment Meyer came up with his short chronology there was opposition. Flinders Petrie was unimpressed by Meyers work and wrote an article in reply in which he proposed a first dynasty date of 5500 BC. He countered the argument of simultaneous dynasties by showing that two of the most important sources of that time, Manetho and Herodotes were not mistaken. Herodotus was shown the evidence of uninterrupted dynasties when he visited Egypt and it later became quite clear that Manetho had taken the utmost care to avoid simultaneous dynasties.

      It also became obvious that although there were periods where the Egyptians were put under pressure, they were able to keep them at bay as shown in the scrolls/instructions to Merikare. However the damage had already been done and the short chronology had been instituded as the official chronology even though Breasted himself showed traces of not believing his own chronology.

      Since then a long line of scholars have shown up such as MacNaughton, Champollion-Figeac, Petrie, Pochan and Robin Walker. Every single one of them has been trying to change the established chronology but it remains a subject avoided and averted, most certainy with more and more information surfacing showing that the history of Egypt may very well date back further than 10.000 BC. Some scholars are asking themself if an even longer chronology must be applied and others are wondering if a complete rewriting of Egyptian history is necessary...

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      Assata Shakur Speaks is an Forum Devoted To Assata Shakur And All Political Prisoners Around The World.
      Assata Shakur Speaks Is An Oasis Of Pan African Information Geared Towards The Liberation Of Afrikan People.

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