Your name or email adress:
Do you already have an account?
Forgot your password?
  • Log in or Sign up


    Results 1 to 6 of 6
    1. #1
      XXPANTHAXX's Avatar
      XXPANTHAXX is offline Organizer

      Join Date
      Jan 2004
      Location
      klan mountain, ga
      Posts
      6,529
      Blog Entries
      7
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 22/0
      Given: 145/1
      Rep Power
      609

      Arrow Afro mexicans: In mexico and california


      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      Alva Moore Stevenson

      Scholars such as Ivan Van Sertima (They Came Before Columbus) assert that Egyptians and Nubians came to Mexico in the Pre-Columbian period (c.1200 BC). The Olmec civilization may be descended from or had contact with Africans. He cites as evidence the African facial features of the Olmec heads at La Venta, Tabasco and San Lorenzo. Van Sertima’s research is controversial and not widely accepted by mainstream historians. Those in the field would probably agree that Blacks who accompanied the conquistadors were the first persons of African descent in Mexico. One of the earliest was Juan Garrído who accompanied Hernán Cortes (c.1519) and participated in the fall of Tenochtitlan. Afro Mexicans in the 16th century fell into three categories: slaves; unarmed auxiliaries (servants and slaves) and armed auxiliaries such as Garrído who obtained their freedom. He was also credited with introducing wheat into the Americas. According to Matthew Restall (Black Conquistadors), “it is primarily after this date [1510] that armed black servants and slaves begin to play significant military roles in Spanish conquest enterprises.”
      The first Africans brought to Mexico as slaves came with the party of Pánfilo Narváez also in 1519. They replaced Indios in the early 1500s because of European-imported diseases that had decimated the indigenous population. In the period between the mid-16th and the mid 17th centuries, the numbers of Africans at times exceeded the indigenous population. In addition for a very short time more Africans were imported into Mexico than any other part of the Americas. As in other parts of Latin America, slaves resisted their oppression. These maroons or cimarrones were reported to have fled and settled in such places as Coyula, Cuaxinecuilapan and Orizaba. One of the more famous was Gaspar Yanga, reportedly descended from a royal family, who led a revolt on the sugar plantations of Veracruz in 1570. He led his followers into the nearby inaccessible mountains and kept the forces of the Crown at bay for many years. Unprecedented in Mexican history, the Crown acceded to a treaty in 1630 which included freedom for the Yanguícos; self-government; and a farmable land grant.
      The import of African slaves had all but ceased by the mid-16th century. What the Spaniards were confronted with in Mexico was an increasingly mixed society racially due to miscegenation. These castas or person of mixed blood not only blurred and crossed the racial lines but economic ones as well. R. Douglas Cope (The Limits of Racial Domination) describes the Spaniard’s dilemma:
      “Stunning wealth and wretched poverty, elegance and squalor, and sophistication
      and ignorance all existed side by side. Hispanic order [was imposed] on a
      recalcitrant population. In short the elite faced a rising tide of mixed-
      bloods, blacks, Indians and poor Spaniards that (in their view)
      threatened to submerge the city into chaos.”

      The Spanish-casta dichotomy gave way to a social dichotomy based on culture and economics and not race. To reinforce their exclusive class, a sistema de castas or caste system was instituted in Mexico as a method of social control. This was a hierarchical ordering of racial groups according to their limpieza de sangre or purity of blood. That is—their place in society corresponded to their proportion of Spanish blood. Cope says that the castas for the most part eschewed the sistema:
      “[By the late 16th century] Africans and Afro-Mexicans created a ‘sphere of
      relative autonomy.’ Their unity and boundaries didn’t shield them from ‘ideological or structural oppression.’ Through these multiple identities they structured social
      relations and built boundaries of kinship and family. Multiple Black boundaries were characterized by interactions between ethnic Africans, Africans and Creoles, Negros, Mulatos, and Moriscos. In turn this reflected a wide range pf African and Afro Mexican
      identities. Persons of African descent were only united though contact with the
      non-African ‘other.’…This did not mean
      Africans...left their culture behind.
      Rather they molded it to fit circumstances
      [In the New World].”

      It should also be noted that Afro Mexicans such as Vicente Guerrero played critical roles in Mexico’s independence of August, 1821. A champion of rights for all regardless of color and the country’s second president; Guerrero was one of the signers of the Plan of Iguala The Plan led to Mexico’s freedom from Spain and gave all men and women--regardless of color-- full citizenship.

      Martha Menchaca (Recovering History, Constructing Race) discusses the reasons behind the northward migration of Afro Mexicans and other non-white Mexicans in the early 19th century:
      “Blatant racial disparities became painfully intolerable to the non-white
      population and generated the conditions for their movement
      toward the northern frontier, where the racial order was relaxed and
      people of color had the opportunity to own land and enter most occupations.”


      In the period up to 1848 and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the sistema “which was designed to ensure the maintenance of caste…quickly disintegrated on its northern frontier, allowing persons of African ancestry remarkable social fluidity.” Like the castas in that time period in Mexico City, early African American Californians were “uninterested in the complexities of the sistema de castas.” It did not dictate daily life. The ambiguity of the sistema made possible the success of Afro-Mexicans Andres and Pio Píco. Píco was the last Mexican governor (1831, 1845-46) of California. A “consummate politician and ‘revolutionist’ “ Pio Píco was also a wealthy landowner, military commander and Los Angeles city councilman (1853). His brother Andres represented California at the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga (1847) ending the Mexican War in California. He also served as state senator (1851, 1860-61). Not only in California but across the southwest, “afromestizos were part of the population that founded Nacogdoches, San Antonio, Laredo, La Bahía, Albuquerque, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara.”

      Several of the pobladores recruited by the Spanish Crown to settle Los Angeles in 1781 were of African descent. Of the afromestizos in the group some hailed from Rosario, Sinaloa—a town where many of the residents were of African descent. Indeed the Píco family also hailed from Rosario. Among the afromestizo families who became prominent landowners and politicians in Southern California during the late 18th-early 19th century were the families of Luís Quintero; María Rita Valdez; Juan Francisco Reyes and José Moreno.

      In contemporary Mexican society the sistema no longer functions overtly but Afro Mexicans remain largely marginalized and occupy places at the lowest rung of the economic ladders. Bobby Vaughn, a scholar of Afro Mexican Studies, asserts that issues of race in Mexico have “been so colored by Mexico’s preoccupation with the Indian question that the Afro Mexican experience tends to blend almost invisibly into the background, even to Afro Mexicans themselves.” The national focus on Mexican identity as a dichotomy of Spanish and Aztec-Mexica-Maya or indigenismo-mestizaje effectively excludes them. Anani Dzidzienyo (No Longer Invisible) characterizes it as follows, “mestizaje ignores Blacks to such an extent that it would make all Blacks mestizos of some sort.”

      Since the mid 1990s, Afro Mexicans from thirty African-descent areas are convening in what is called an “Encuentro de Pueblos Negros” or a gathering of Black towns. Led by Father Glyn Jermott they are organizing, in his words, "… to relate our common history as black people, to strengthen our union as communities, to organize and open realizable paths to secure our future, and to resist our marginalization in the life of the Mexican nation." Their movement parallels similar ones involving African-descended peoples in Guatemala, Belize and the Honduras.
      BIBLIOGRAPHY


      1. Bennett, Herman Lee. Lovers, family, friends,: The formation of Afro
      Mexico, 1580-1910. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University
      Press, 1993.

      2. Bobby Vaughn’s The Black Mexico Home Page: Afro Mexicans of
      the Costa Chica. Website: Black Mexico Homepage

      3. Cope, R. Douglas. The Limits of Racial Domination: Plebeian Society in
      Colonial Mexico City, 1660-1720. Madison, Wisconsin: University of
      Wisconsin Press, 1994.

      4. Dzidzienyo, Anani. “Conclusions.” No Longer Invisible: Afro-Latin
      Americans Today. Minority Rights Group, ed. London: Minority
      Rights Publications, 1995.

      5. Gibbs, Michele, “African Heritage Strong in Mexico. Afrikan.net Newsboard.
      Website: AFRICAN HERITAGE IN MEXICO

      6. Menchaca, Martha. Recovering history, constructing race : the Indian, Black,
      and white roots of Mexican Americans. Austin: University of Texas,
      Press, 2001.

      7. Restall, Matthew. “Black Conquistadors: Armed Africans in Early America”
      The Americas. 57.2 (2000) 171-205

      8. Van Sertima, Ivan. They Came Before Columbus. 1st Edition. New York:
      Random House, 1976.
      Nov 2, 2010 "Assata Shakur Liberation Day" marks 31 yrs of freedom for our Comrade Assata Shakur, Our Warrior was liberated from a NJ prison by Comrades In The Black Liberation Army click here to read more or here www.assatashakur.com

    2. #2
      Blackmind's Avatar
      Blackmind is offline Warrior

      Join Date
      Dec 2005
      Location
      N.Y.C.
      Posts
      127
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 0/0
      Given: 0/0
      Rep Power
      85

      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      Great article actually just read a speech to my student where i mentioned afro-mexicans/latinos such as Guerrero and Jose Maria Marelos.

    3. #3
      halimacandy's Avatar
      halimacandy is offline Warrior

      Join Date
      Dec 2008
      Location
      philadelphia
      Posts
      51
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 4/0
      Given: 3/0
      Rep Power
      45

      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      Thanks you for the Afro-mexican post,
      I had a workshop at the school district of philadelphia about the Philadelphia AFRICAN AMERICAN Museum exhibition; blacks in mexico exhibit, but they had a poor lecturer a student that no african centric/ conscious information and had no historical reference to slaveryexcept as a footnote??? , she did have some facts and references but no african-centered/ african -nation state based concepts to link slavery physical[ nation-state] genocide to the mental genocide[ cerole vs. mulatto] of the population, Philadelphia TALLER PUERTO RICANNUO also had a awesome workshop related to the African centered work /legacy of Auturo Schomburg, the sisters from Panama/columbia/Brazi discussed their paper for the racism conference [reparations] follow up conference [Durban S.A.] the International Conference on Racism in europe soon/ this fall 2009.

    4. #4
      Blackmind's Avatar
      Blackmind is offline Warrior

      Join Date
      Dec 2005
      Location
      N.Y.C.
      Posts
      127
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 0/0
      Given: 0/0
      Rep Power
      85

      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      i just realized that source #4 is actually a former teacher of mine from Brown University, he has the knowledge but he still carries a number of viewpoints from their mentality. He started off the unveiling ceremony of our africana studies department by talking about how black women were the carries of history's vessels as he poured libations, but no once could take their minds off of the white woman we would always see on his arms.

      He introduced me to alot of great information, but I just can't respect the man.

    5. #5
      guera's Avatar
      guera is offline Warrior

      Join Date
      May 2009
      Location
      arizona
      Posts
      22
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 0/0
      Given: 0/0
      Rep Power
      0

      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      Thanks for this post. Nice to know some of the achievements of Afro Mexicans.

    6. #6
      PTB's Avatar
      PTB
      PTB is offline Moderator

      Join Date
      Dec 2009
      Location
      Mississippi
      Posts
      294
      Thumbs Up/Down
      Received: 11/1
      Given: 9/0
      Rep Power
      77

      0 Not allowed! Not allowed!
      damn black mexicans used to be deep in the southwest now they almost extinct!

    Thread Information

    Users Browsing this Thread

    There are currently 1 users browsing this thread. (0 members and 1 guests)

    Similar Threads

    1. Many Mexicans see oil as last frontier against US invasion
      By Jahness in forum Afrikan World News
      Replies: 0
      Last Post: 04-24-2008, 08:46 PM
    2. Miscegenagtion and Racism: The Afro-Mexican in Colonial Mexico
      By XXPANTHAXX in forum They All Look A like! All Of Them!!!
      Replies: 1
      Last Post: 10-18-2005, 11:10 PM
    3. Blacks and Mexicans
      By Cherubim in forum They All Look A like! All Of Them!!!
      Replies: 2
      Last Post: 09-29-2005, 08:57 PM
    4. The Mexicans Are Coming
      By Jahness in forum Poetic Resistance - Spoken Word - Poetry
      Replies: 5
      Last Post: 05-19-2005, 07:35 PM
    5. African Mexicans: In Mexico And California
      By XXPANTHAXX in forum They All Look A like! All Of Them!!!
      Replies: 0
      Last Post: 12-29-2004, 12:39 PM

    Thread Participants: 4

    Posting Permissions

    • You may not post new threads
    • You may not post replies
    • You may not post attachments
    • You may not edit your posts
    •  


    About

      Assata Shakur Speaks is an Forum Devoted To Assata Shakur And All Political Prisoners Around The World.
      Assata Shakur Speaks Is An Oasis Of Pan African Information Geared Towards The Liberation Of Afrikan People.

    Follow Us On

    Twitter Facebook youtube Flickr DavianArt Dribbble RSS Feed



    BACK TO TOP