Based on Islam and on the prudence of the FulBe people they have an own word for their behaviour and code of living: Pulaaku.
Pulaaku is a central element of the FulBe culture and is not only achieved by speaking a Fulani dialect. Pulaaku is taught by the parents to the children and by the clan leaders.
Pulaaku is expressed by a polite and introverted behaviour, keeping distance especially to outsiders. The FulBe people don't show their emotions and are maintaining respect to each other including to enemies.
There are 3 pillars of Pulaaku:
* munyal = patience, self control, discipline ; also written munal
* semteende = modesty, respect ; with this expression I have a problem, because it is translated "lie" *
* hakkillo = wisdom, forethought, managing it's own ; hakkile is translated with "brain, sense, mind"
* modesty should be translated with yankinaare, respect with teddungal. Any comments welcome on this issue!!!
According to Henri Gaden "Le Poular - Lexique Poular-Francais" semtemte means "dénonciation, mensonge", so this is also not right in this context. I have to check the sources if semteende is really the correct expression.
Bintou Sanankoua reports in the addendum of his book "Un empire peul au XIXe siècle" three phrases, which belong to the moral codex of FulBe people:
* 'Be kersata = do not make shame
* 'Be kulata = do no have fear
* 'Be penata = do not lie
This phrases are corresponding ver close to the Pulaaku pillars. It seems they are only a different expression.
Overall Pulaaku means to live in accordance with the traditional merits of the FulBe culture.
In the Pulaar-English dictionary the term is written "Pulaagu" and translated with "Fulani pride". There is also a special word "Toorodaagal", which is translated with "Toorodoo pride". ToorobBe (plural) is the top class in the social hierarchy of the Haalpulaar in Fuuta Tooro.